Chapter 8, Section 1 pg

Chapter 8, Section 1 pg. 226-228
ATP: adenosine triphosphate
 compound used to release and store energy
 ATP can easily release and store energy by breaking and re-forming the bonds
between its phosphate groups. This characteristic of ATP makes it
exceptionally useful as a basic energy source for all cells.
Heterotroph: organism that obtains food by consuming other living things, consumer
Autotroph: organism that is able to capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it
to produce its own food from inorganic compounds, producer
Photosynthesis: process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and
use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and
energy-rich carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.
 photo: means light
 synthesis: putting together
 photosynthesis: using light to put something together
 in this process, plants convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy
stored in the bonds of carbohydrates
Chapter 8, Section 2 pg.230-234
Photosynthetic organisms capture energy from sunlight with pigments
Pigments: light-absorbing molecules
Chlorophyll: principal pigment in photosynthesis
 two types found in plants:
o chlorophyll a
o chlorophyll b
 located in the thykaloid membranes
Thykaloids: sacklike photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts
 arranged in stacks known as grana
Stroma: fluid portion of chloroplasts; outside of the thykaloids
An electron carrier is a compound that can accept a pair of high-energy electrons and
transfer them, along with most of their energy, to another molecule
NADP+: One of these carriers ^^
 transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to make other molecules
NADP+  accepts & holds 2 high-energy electrons & a hydrogen ion  NADPH (traps
sunlight in chemical form)  carries high-energy electrons to chemical reactions
elsewhere **helps to build a variety of molecules the cell needs ex. glucose, carbs.
Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbondioxide (reactants)
into high-energy sugars and oxygen (products).
Photosynthesis: Carbon dioxide + water light sugars + oxygen
Light-dependent reactions: set of reactions in photosynthesis that use energy from light
to produce ATP and NADPH- occur in the thykaloids of choloplasts
Light-independent reactions: set of reactions in photosynthesis that does not require
Chapter 8, section 3 pg.235-241
The light dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce oxygen and convert
ADP and NADP+ into the carriers ATP and NADPH
Photosystems: cluster of chlorophyll and proteins found in thykaloids
 absorb sunlight and generate high-energy electrons
Electron transport chain: series of electron carrier proteins that shuttle high-energy
electrons during ATP-generating reactions
ATP synthase: cluster of proteins that span the cell membrane and allow hydrogen
atoms to pass through it
Calvin Cycle: light-independent reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP
and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar
Among the most important factors that affect photosynthesis are temperature, light
intensity, and the availability of water