Biology II Study Guide for Chapters 32 – 33 Exam (Biology, 8th, Raven © 2008) What are the two unique tissues that animals possess for movement and signal conduction? The evolution of bilateral symmetry was a necessary precursor for the evolution of what feature? Know the definitions for the following: coelomate; acoelomate; and pseudocoelomate. What characteristic is used to distinguish between a Parazoan and a Eumetazoan? Which phylum contains the greatest number of known species? How many major expansions of animal diversity has occurred since the Cambrian period? A coelomate organism may have what type of characteristics compared to pseudocoelomates? Traditionally the animal phyla were grouped together by what 5 levels of organization? What are the the defining features of protostomes? What is the most strongly supported hypothesis about the origin of the metazoans which demonstrates the animal kingdom is monophyletic? What is the proper term for the animal clade which groups arthropods and annelids as animals that molt? What characteristics separate sponges as being differ from other animals? Of the 9 major characteristics of animals, which is the one most defining characteristic? What type of cleavage do protostomes and deuterstome develop through? What is the difference between indeterminate and determinate development? In which phylum of marine animals did symmetrical body plans first evolve? Know the features associated with animals displaying bilateral symmetry. Which system solved the problem of the barrier to diffusion created by tissue surrounding the gut in animals with coeloms (coelomates). What characteristics do all eumetazoans have in common? What is the pattern of embryonic development that most animals undergo? (hint: 4 steps) What germ layers are associated with diploblastic or triploblastic? What are the three animal phyla that dominate animal life on land? What are the five transitions in body plans as animals evolved from simple to complex? What phylums show true segmentation? Molecular data suggests that the myzostomids showing incomplete segmentation seem to be most closely related to which animal group? Parazoa animals have what type of tissue(s)? What key transitions does the phylum Chordata share? What key transitions does the phylum Echinodermata share? Which phylum includes protostome animals that are segmented, bilaterally symmetric, and have a chitinous exoskeleton? Which phylum includes coelomate, bilaterian animals that have a structure called a notochord? Be able to distinguish a phylum that includes animals that are unsegmented, acoelomate, and have a digestive cavity with a single opening. What is the one characteristic that ALL animals share? In modern phylogenetic analysis of the animals, the protostomes are divided into what two major groups based on what characteristic? Be able to describe a choanocytes cell of a sponge. Where are spicules and spongin found within the area of a sponge? What is the proper term for the larval stage of a cnidarian? Which class from the phylum cnidarians has an endosymbiotic relationship with a dinoflagellate? What is the function of flame cells in a flatworm? Which of the four classes of flatworm is NOT parasitic? Be able to identify diseases caused by a nematode? Traditionally, bilaterally symmetrical animals where placed into three branches based on what feature? The modern classification of the animals has divided the protostomes into what two clades? How do cnidarians differ from sponges in how they digest food? What does “eutely” mean? What two phyla that belong to the Ecdysozoan clade? What vertebrate structure do tapeworms live? Be able to list key features of Cnidarians What is the common name for animals within the phylum Ctenophora? What type of waters are Anthozoan corals typically found in? What are the typical hosts for flukes (parasitic worms) during their larval stage? What causes schistosomiasis? Know the definition for tapeworm’ proglottids. Know the pathway for Trichinella nematodes to reach human muscle tissue. How does one contract trichinosis? Know the disease associated with each of the following: Ascaris; Filaria; Enterobius; & Trichinella. Know the type of animal that each of the following terms are associated with: spicules; stylets; nematocyst; scolex; and flame cells. Be able to list the features of animals within the phylum Nematoda. Be able to list phylums that belong to the clade Spiralia. Be able to list classes belonging to the phylum Cnidarian. What is the proper term for the specialized, larger pore in sponges where water and waste exit?