Name: Oceanography Mid-Term Review Section 1 1. What is oceanography? 2. Provide three reasons why we study oceanography. 3. What other subjects are included within oceanography? 4. How did the Renaissance jumpstart oceanographic research? 5. How did the Wilkes expedition contribute to oceanography? 6. How did the Challenger expedition contribute to oceanography? 7. Why were land-based marine labs an important development in the realm of oceanography? 8. What are two technological advancements that have contributed to oceanographic research? Section 2. 1. What percentage of the planet is covered by water? 2. What are the four oceans on Earth? 3. What type of rock composes continental plates? Oceanic plates? 4. Identify two pieces of evidence used to support the theory of continental drift. 5. What is a mid-ocean ridge? Name one. 6. What happens at a continental-oceanic convergence zone? Draw a diagram and provide an example. 7. What happens at an oceanic-oceanic convergence zone? Draw a diagram and provide an example. 8. What are the components of a continental margin? Draw and label a diagram. 9. What are the differences between an active and passive margin? 10. What is a hotspot? 11. What is a seamount? Section 3. 1. What is polarity? 2. What is the Coriolis Effect? 3. What is the source of winds? 4. What are the 6 major wind belts on Earth? 5. What is an upwelling? 6. What is a gyre? How is a gyre created? 7. What are upwellings and downwellings? 8. What is a thermocline? 9. Why are the western edges of oceans warmer than the eastern edges? 10. Describe how an El Nino is created, what effect does it have on the oceans? 11. Draw and label a wave. 12. How are tides created? What effect do tides have on marine life? What are the highest and lowest tides called? 13. What tidal patterns does New Jersey exhibit? 14. Define: Berm: Longshore Bar: Swash: Backwash: Dune: Longshore Trough: Longshore Drift: Sea Stack: Tombolo: Sea Arch: Section 4. 1. What are phytoplankton? Give an example. 2. What are zooplankton? Give an example. 3. Why are plankton so important to the marine ecosystem? 4. What are the three main body parts of an alga? 5. What are the three dominant pigments found in different types of algae? 6. Provide an example of each of the three groups of algae we discussed. 7. Why are kelp forests especially unique and important members of the algae realm? 8. What are mangroves? Section 5. 1. Members of the phylum Porifera are more commonly known as…? 2. How do sponges feed? 3. What is the specialized feeding cell of a sponge called (collar cell)? 4. Members of the phylum Cnidaria are include what two major groups we discussed? 5. How does a nematocyst work? 6. What are the two types of life stages found in cnidarians? 7. Name two examples of cnidarians. 8. What form of symmetry is exhibited by cnidarians? 9. Scyphozoans are commonly known as… Section 6. 1. Name the three classes of mollusks. 2. Identify the body plan for all mollusks. 3. Identify the characteristics that distinguish each class of mollusks. Section 7. 1. What are the characteristics that define arthropods? 2. What is a crustacean? 3. Why are arthropods important for the ecosystem? 4. What are the body parts of an arthropod? Section 8. 1. What is an echinoderm? 2. Name four echinoderms.