BOTANY 241 TROPICAL PLAN SYSTEMATICS SPRING 1995

advertisement
BOTANY 241
TROPICAL PLANT SYSTEMATICS
FALL 2014
Instructor David S. Barrington [email protected] Work: 656-0431, Cell: 338-0313
241 Website: http://www.uvm.edu/~dbarring/241/
Regular Class Meetings (Tuesday and Thursday at 1 PM, Torrey 303)
Texts (suggested – order on line):
Zomlefer, W.B. 1994. Guide to Flowering-Plant Families. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press.
Judd, W.S., C.S. Campbell, E.A. Kellogg, P.F. Stevens, and M.J. Donoghue. 2007. Plant systematics:
a phylogenetic approach. 3rd edition. Sunderland, Massachisetts: Sinauer Press.
Mabberley, D.J. 1997. The Plant-Book. Cambridge, England. 2nd. ed. Cambridge Univ.
Press.
Course Abstract: This is the most exciting time in the history of plant systematics and evolution.
Modern analytic tools (inferring phylogeny using cladistic methods) combined with DNA sequence
characters have revolutionized the science. At the same time, the lure of the deep forests of the tropics
remains irresistible, at least to some of us. My goals are three:
1. to acquaint you with the diversity and biology of key tropical flowering-plant families
2. give you substantial insight into the morphological diversity and evolution of flowering plants
3. provide an introduction into the rich terrain of flowering-plant biogeography, pollination and
dispersal ecology, and chemical and mechanical defenses
4. touch on the ethnobotany of the plants as time permits
Approach: Al Gentry, one of the truly great tropical field botanists, provided insights into which
flowering-plant families are the most common in the New World tropics. The 27 families that emerge
from this analysis provide the backbone for the course. As we consider these families, all of the most
interesting modern problems, methodologies, and ideas will come up for our consideration.
My central teaching objectives:
To teach the spot characters for the Gentry families.
To illustrate plant biology using the Gentry families.
To provide a working knowledge of current angiosperm phylogeny and its history.
To demonstrate current research through readings in the recent literature.
Things you need to know that I will end up reviewing or teaching in detail:
How phylogenetic inference works.
Basic biogeography.
Basic structure of flowering plants with knowledge of terminology.
Basic molecular biology.
How plants grow.
Evaluation: Evaluation of your work in this course is self-designed to a certain extent. There will be a
midterm and a final. A separate research project is welcome; I will give more thoughts on this. By the
time of the midterm you need to decide on how you want to be graded - that is what each of your course
components will be worth.
KINDS OF INFORMATION AND QUESTIONS FOR BOTANY 241
(A definition of the intellectual landscape)
Systematists and other people interested in plant diversity are interested in a wide variety of information
about plants, but the information all relates to a fairly defined set of questions. These form the
substance of Botany 241. The most prominent questions we will address in the course relate to
phylogeny, ecology, and biogeography – but the other questions always seem to crop up as well.
KIND OF INFORMATION
QUESTIONS RELATED TO
THIS KIND OF
INFORMATION
What is this family’s ecological
role in the forest (as canopy or
understory tree, herb, epiphyte,
liana, or parasite)?
What is the medicinal importance
of these plants, and what do these
plants use these compounds for,
usually in defense?
How is pollen moved, how
dedicated are the pollinators,
how does the typical morphology
of the family lend itself to
pollination?
What is this family related to and
how can you tell in the forest?
What is the most primitive
flowering plant?
What are the typical features of
members of this family?
1.
place in forest
2.
phytochemistry
3.
pollination and dispersal
4.
phylogeny and origins
5.
morphology
6.
non-medical economics
(food and fiber etc.)
What do people use these plants
for besides medicinally?
7.
spot characters
How do you tell members of this
family when you are in the
forest?
8.
biogeography
What historical and ecological
factors determine the current
distribution of members of this
family?
THINGS PEOPLE DO TO
ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS
Look at family members in their
forest setting.
Identify chemical constituents,
look for patterns of utility and
relationship to herbivores.
Watch the behavior of visitors to
flowers, watch the behavior of
fruit dispersers.
Score characteristics of the plant
groups and compare them.
Study the anatomy and
morphology of family members,
look for constant and varying
features.
Identify non-medicinal uses of
the plants through observation
and literature review.
Figure out what characters are
constant for the family that can
be seen in the forest with a 10x
lens or no help.
Chart the distributions of family
members, especially genera, and
infer history and ecological
constraints.
THE MOST PROMINENT FLOWERING-PLANT FAMILIES IN THE AMERICAN
TROPICS
In 1988, the legendary Al Gentry listed the most common families of plants in three forests in
tropical America (Annals Missouri Botanical Garden 75:1-34.). Here are his lists (order is from
most to least important in each forest type:
low (hot), moist and wet
low (hot), dry
mid-elevation (cool), wet
(0-1000m, 0.5+m rain)
(0-1000m, < 0.5m rain)
(1000-2000m, >1m rain)
legumes
Annonaceae
Moraceae
Bignoniaceae
Lauraceae
Rubiaceae
Sapotaceae
Palmae
Euphorbiaceae
Myristicaceae
Meliaceae
Sapindaceae
legumes
Bignoniaceae
Rubiaceae
Sapindaceae
Capparaceae
Flacourtiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Nyctaginaceae
Boraginaceae
Cactaceae
Malpighiaceae
Lauraceae
Rubiaceae
Melastomataceae
Euphorbiaceae
Moraceae
Guttiferae
legumes
ferns
Araceae
Palmae
Considering these lists and the plants I find most prominently in the American tropics and
including a couple of groups out of enthusiasm yields an arbitrary list of the 27 most important
families in the American tropics. The families, in the APG classification order, consistute the
order of discussion for this course.
ALPHABETICAL ORDER
Acanthaceae
Annonaceae
Apocynaceae
Araceae
Arecaceae(Palmae)
Bignoniaceae
Bromeliaceae
Cactaceae
Clusiaceae(Guttiferae)
Ericaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Fabaceae(Leguminosae)
Gesneriaceae
Lauraceae
Loranthaceae etc.
Malpighiaceae
Malvaceae
Melastomataceae
Meliaceae and Sapindacea
Moraceae and Urticaceae
Myristicaceae
Nyctaginaceae
Orchidaceae
Piperaceae
Rubiaceae
Salicaceae
Sapotaceae
APG CLASSIFICATION ORDER
MAGNOLIIDS
Magnoliales
1. Annonaceae
2. Myristicaceae
Laurales
3. Lauraceae
Piperales
4. Piperaceae
MONOCOTS
Alismatales
5. Araceae
Asparagales
6. Orchidaceae
COMMELINIDS
Arecales
7. Arecaceae (Palmae)
Poales
8. Bromeliaceae
EUDICOTS
ROSIDS
ROSIDS I (Fabidae)
Malpighiales
9. Clusiaceae (Guttiferae)
10. Malpighiaceae
11. Salicaceae
12. Euphorbiaceae
Fabales
13. Fabaceae (Leguminosae)
Rosales
14. Moraceae and Urticaceae
ROSIDS II (Malvidae)
Myrtales
15. Melastomataceae
Sapindales
16. Meliaceae and Sapindaceae
Malvales
17. Malvaceae
ASTERIDS
Santalales
18. Loranthaceae etc.
Caryophyllales
19. Nyctaginaceae
20. Cactaceae
Ericales
21. Sapotaceae
22. Ericaceae
ASTERIDS I
Gentianales
23. Rubiaceae
24. Apocynaceae
Lamiales
25. Gesneriaceae
26. Acanthaceae
27. Bignoniaceae
THE CURRENT APG TREE OF ANGIOSPERM ORDERS, FROM THE APG WEBSITE
http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APWeb/welcome.html TREES
CRITICAL CHARACTERS
Botany 241, Tropical Plant Systematics
This is a list of characters that are likely to be useful in identifying plant families in the tropics, in
situations where you have fresh material and a hand lens. I have purposely chosen the characters
that also relate to the discussions of the phylogeny of angiosperm families as a whole, so that as
you look for characters you can start to think about relationships. There are many more
characters, many of which we will mention; these are just the common ones.
27 CRITICAL CHARACTERS FOR LEARNING
FAMILIES OF FLOWERING PLANTS
1. life form
15. petal fusion
2. leaf position
16. corolla estivation
3. leaf dissection
17. stamen number relative to petal number
4. leaf design/venation
18. stamen fusion
5. stipules
19. anther dehiscence
6. secondary and tertiary vein patterns
20. disc presence
7. latex presence and color
21. hypanthium presence
8. odor of crushed leaves
22. carpel number
9. sepal number
23. carpel connation
10. calyx symmetry
24. gynoecium symmetry
11. sepal fusion
25. placentation
12. calyx estivation
26. ovary position
13. petal number
27. fruit type
14. corolla symmetry
Download