Unit 1 Cell and Molecular Biology

Advanced Higher Biology
Taylor High School
Unit 1 Cell and Molecular Biology
Section 7 – Signalling
1. The sodium-potassium pump in animal cells provides one of the best
examples of the movement of solutes against a concentration gradient
by active transport.
a. Which ion is transported out of the cell?
b. Which ion is transported into the cell?
c. How is the pump driven?
d. Describe the overall result of the sodium-potassium pump.
e. What percentage of a typical animal cells expenditure is used in
the maintenance of the sodium and potassium concentrations?
f. What are the five key features of the pump?
g. Draw a diagram to summarise the sodium-potassium pump and
the concentration gradients of the ions.
2. Communication between cells involves transmitting and receiving
information. What is the function of the signalling cell?
3. What name is given to the cell receiving the information?
4. What is meant by signal transduction?
5. Name a type of extracellular hydrophobic signalling molecule and give
an example.
Advanced Higher Biology
Taylor High School
6. With the aid of a diagram describe the action of cortisol.
7. Give two reasons why the majority of extracellular hydrophilic
molecules cannot cross the membrane.
8. Where are the receptor proteins for these signals located?
9. Name the three main classes of cell surface transmembrane
10. What other name is given to ion-channel linked receptors?
11. Where is this type of receptor found?
12. Which receptors are found in all types of cells?
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