TWO MUSLIM EMPIRES: MALI AND DELHI

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TWO MUSLIM EMPIRES: MALI AND DELHI
MALI
1200-1500
DELHI
1206-1526
Western Sub-Saharan Africa
India
Dates
Regions
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Founding
Government
System
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Founded by indigenous African dynasty that
adopted Islam through peaceful means
Sundiata defeated Sumanguru (leader of Takrur
kingdom) to create the Mali empire
Islamic administration
Generally peaceful, with an Islamic legal system
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Economy and
Trade
Society
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Relied upon trans-Saharan route
Controlled gold fields of Niger
Control of gold and copper trades
Contact with N. African Muslim traders (due to
religious contacts)
Extremely rich
Sent slaves to N. Africa—many specially trained
Multiple wives and concubines (harems)
Slavery
Huge social difference between ruler and ruled,
but literacy promoted
Showed signs of syncretism of Islam and older
tribal religions (women weren’t veiled)
Scholars held high place in society—books
hugely valued
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Founded by invading Turkish and Afghan
Muslims
Violent attacks against Hindu and Buddhist
temples—took women for harems, stoke from
temples and killed thousands of Indians
Consolidated power through military expeditions
Islamic administration
Became more peaceful over time. Granted
protection to conquered in return for a tax
Relied on terror to keep subjects submissive
Created bureaucracy and centralized political
authority in India
Not as much trade (not dependent upon it like
Mali)
Efforts to improve agriculture
Efforts to establish a common currency
Included mixes of people—Turkish adventurers and
other Muslims conquerors
Uneasy b/c of hatred by Hindus
One woman (Raziya) was designated heir to the
throne but only rule 4 years (people didn’t trust a
woman)
Network of spies, high taxes, brutality
Slavery
Female status determined by close-related male
MALI
DELHI
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Technology
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Internal threats
External threats
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Wealth attracted attackers
Tuareg (Berber people) retook Timbuktu in 1433
By 1500, Mali had last much of its territory
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Spread through generally peaceful means—
mostly trade contact
Mansa Masu’s pilgrammage to Mecca in 1324—
showed off Mali’s wealth and brought attention
to the kingdom
Masu built new mosques and opened Quranic
schools
Fostered trade contacts with other Islamic areas
After decline of Mali, central Sudan city-states
and empire adopted Islam and official religion
Associated with the spread of literacy in region
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Role of Islam
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Decline
Incompetent rulers (Mansa Suleiman’s
successors)
Rebellions amongst various groups within
Cities along the upper Niger survived the collapse
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Trade and intellectual life moved to other African
states in central Sudan
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Used crossbows and iron stirrups in conquest of
India
Introduces papermaking to India
Harsh military reprisals to put down rebellions
Personal and religious rivalries amongst Muslim
elite
Discontent of Hindus
Bengal broke off to empire
Mongol threats from NE
1398 Mongol leader Timur captured the city of
Delhi—left the next year with thousands of
captive and large amount of pillage—ruined the
city
Initial suppression of Hinduism
Sometimes religiously tolerant, other time
continued oppression (especially w/ high taxes)
Acquired a permanent place in South Asia
Buddhism virtually destroyed in India
Muslim nobles created Bahmani Kingdom and
Hindus created Vijayanagar Empire which split the
Delhi Sultanate
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