Grammar To Memorize 1

advertisement
The Parts of a Sentence
A sentence is a group of words punctuated correctly that expresses a complete
thought or statement. In order for a group of words to be classified as a sentence, it must
have all of the following three items:
1. A Subject – This is who or what does the action in a sentence or who or what
the sentence is about. The subject is always a noun or a pronoun.
2. A Verb - This can be the action word in a sentence or a verb that shows a
state of being.
*** It is very important that you learn your state of being verbs.
3. A Complete Thought – The group of words must clearly make a statement or
ask a question.
If any one of these three items is missing, you do not have a sentence!
There is no set length to a sentence. A sentence can be one word or 100 words.
Don’t determine that a group of words is or isn’t a sentence because it is too long or too
short. Just check that it has at least one subject, one verb, and a complete idea.
Example: Stop.
This is a sentence. It has a verb: stop. It has a subject; since it is a command, the
subject is you understood. And the idea of stopping is a complete one.
As you write, become aware of how you are writing your sentences. Check to see
that you have subjects (nouns or pronouns) doing things (verbs) and that your ideas are
complete.
If you can’t find an action word in your sentence, then check for a state of being
or linking verb. This is a group of 21 words that are verbs 100% of the time. They do not
show action. They explain the state or condition of the subject.
Example: We are here.
The verb are is showing the condition of the subject we. Are is linking the
subject we to here.
It is important to simply memorize the state of being or linking verbs. This way
you will be able to find your verb in a sentence that has no action word. Knowing these
words will also come in handy later when you work with subject/verb agreement and
pronoun usage.
Grammar To Memorize 1
State of Being Verbs or Linking Verbs
Any time you see these words, identify them as verbs.
be
being
am
is
are
was
were
will be
shall be
may be
might be
must be
should be
would be
can be
could be
should have been
would have been
could have been
shall have been
must have been
You should be able to look at a sentence and say, “This word is the subject and this word
is the verb.” When you edit your writing, you must be sure to check that all of your
sentences have subjects and verbs.
There are a few things to remember when looking for subjects and verbs:
1. There can be multiple subjects and verbs in a sentence.
2. Words ending in ing are not verbs unless they are connected to state of being
or helping verbs.
3. The words there and here are never subjects.
4. In a command, the subject is you understood. (The word you may not appear
in the sentence.)
5. Subjects are never found in *prepositional* phrases.
*Prepositional Phrases are phrases that begin with prepositions and end with
nouns or pronouns.
These phrases often explain where, when, or how about ideas in a sentence.
Examples
A. We drove down the shore on the weekend.
down the shore – tells where we drove
on the weekend – tells when we drove
Grammar to Memorize 2
Commonly Used Prepositions
aboard
about
above
across
after
against
along
among
around
at
before
for
below
beneath
beside
besides
between
beyond
but (except)
by
concerning
down
during
except
since
from
according to
as of
aside from
because of
by means of
in
inside
into
like
near
of
off
on
out
over
past
without
through
in addition to
in front of
in place of
in spite of
instead of
throughout
till
to
towards
under
underneath
until
up
upon
with
behind
next to
on account of
out of
owing to
prior to
Grammar to Memorize 3
Indefinite Pronouns
Singular Indefinite Pronouns
The following words are always singular when used as subjects in a sentence.
Be sure that in the present tense, the verbs that go with these words end in s.
Remember to cross out the prepositional phrases when trying to locate the subject in a
sentence.
each, either, neither
Either of the girls is going to win.
one, everyone, no one, anyone, someone
Everyone is excited about the show.
nobody, anybody, everybody, somebody
crime.
Somebody knows who did the
nothing, anything, everything, something
Everything is going to be all right.
Plural Indefinite Pronouns
The following words are always plural when used as subjects in a sentence.
Be sure that in the present tense, the verbs that go with these words do not end in s.
several, few, both, many
Several of the students are going.
A few are all that we need.
Grammar to Memorize 4
Subjective (Nominative) Case Personal Pronouns - The following pronouns are
pronouns that can be the subjects in sentences.
I
you
he/she
we
you
they
Grammar to Memorize 5
Objective Case Personal Pronouns – The following pronouns are used as objects in
sentences.
me
us
you
you
him/her
them
Grammar to Memorize 6
Conjunctions
The following are the only conjunctions that can be used to join two complete sentences
together. When using these words to link sentences, be sure to use a comma before them.
and, or, but, for (when it means because), so, yet, nor
Example: I left early for school, but I was still late because of traffic.
We tried so hard, yet we still lost.
I want to go to college, and then I want to go to graduate school.
Download
Related flashcards

Semantics

31 cards

Punctuation

15 cards

Parts of speech

13 cards

Markup languages

43 cards

Parts of speech

13 cards

Create Flashcards