THE LINGUISTIC SUB-SCIENCES PHONETICS PHONOLOGY GRAPHOLOGY MORPHOLOGY SYNTAX The branch of linguistics that deals with the sounds of speech and their production, combination, description, and representation by written symbols. Phonetics studies the concrete characteristics (articulatory, acoustic, auditory) of the sounds used in languages. Phonology studies the organization and distribution of speech sounds of a language. It concerns itself with those sounds that can convey different meanings as well as how sounds combine with other sounds. The phoneme is the smallest unit of phonological analysis. Studies the writing system of a language, the letters used in its writing system. A grapheme is the smallest unit used in describing the writing system of a language. A grapheme may or may not carry meaning by itself, and may or may not correspond to a single phoneme. Graphemes include alphabetic letters, typographic ligatures, Chinese characters, numerical digits, punctuation marks, and other individual symbols of any of the world's writing systems.. Morphology studies the structure of words, in particular how words are formed and their inflections. Words are said to be made up of morphemes, the smallest units of meaning in written language. Syntax covers how words--along with their endings, prefixes, and internal changes--combine into phrases and sentences. That is to say, the system of rules governing the structure of phrases, clauses and sentences in terms of order and constituency. GRAMMAR Grammar is a term that often includes only the studies of morphology and syntax. This is usually what is meant by "traditional Latin grammar" or "traditional English grammar." Some people use the word grammar to include phonology and semantics as well. SEMANTICS Semantics is concerned with the meanings of words, word particles, and sentences. The way such meanings are combined to give the meanings of sentences. LEXICON Formally, in linguistics, a lexicon is a language's inventory of lexemes, essentially a catalogue of a language's words (ts wordstock);. Dictionaries represent attempts at listing, in alphabetical order, the lexicon of a given language . PRAGMATICS Pragmatics is a branch of linguistics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning., but also on the context of the utterance, any pre-existing knowledge about those involved, the inferred intent of the speaker, and other factors. Pragmatics is concerned with the study of language as it is used in a social context and affects the interlocutors and their behaviour. STYLISTICS Concerns the variations involved in different situations and different styles of speech (formal, informal, standard, substandard, colloquial, familiar, etc) SOCIOLINGUISTICS Socio-linguistics studies the interaction between language and society (variations across classes, sexes, etc) PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Studies the relationship between the mind and language, the behaviour of human beings in their production and perception of language. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Language Acquisition, a branch of applied linguistics, is concerned with children’s learning of their first language. APPLIED LINGUISTICS NEUROLINGUISTICS LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of linguistics. Major branches of applied linguistics include bilingualism and multilingualism, computer-mediated communication (CMC), conversation analysis, contrastive linguistics, sign linguistics, language assessment, literacies, discourse analysis, language pedagogy, second language acquisition, lexicography, language planning and policy, interlinguistics, stylistics, pragmatics, forensic linguistics and translation. A branch of linguistics that studies the relationship between human brain and language, the neurological basis of language development and use. Language education is the teaching and learning of a foreign or second language. Language education is a branch of applied linguistics. language learning studies the process of internalizing a language – either a mothertongue or a foreign language. The factors which affect this process (such as the individual’s intelligence, memory and motivation to learn) are seen as separate from those involved in the task of language teaching.