ORAL PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES

advertisement
Oral Presentation
Techniques
Session Guide
Oral Presentation Techniques
SESSION GUIDE
PURPOSE AND CONTENT
A well-documented, well-planned, and well-structured presentation can be ineffective if
the presentation is delivered poorly. The delivery phase can make or ruin a
presentation. The purpose of this session is to provide key points on which to focus in
the delivery of the presentation to maximize its effectiveness. This will be helpful
whether, for example, you have to present a program proposal to improve rational use
of drugs or deliver an educational intervention to a large audience.
This course requires participants to prepare and make presentations. Many
participants will use the materials to teach others.
OBJECTIVES
This session will develop your ability to—
1.
2.
3.
4.
Understand the key factors for successful presentation delivery
Prepare effective visual aids
Deliver successful presentations
Evaluate presentation delivery
PREPARATION
1. Read the Session Notes.
2. Think of presentations you have given in the past. Which ones were successful or
dull? Why? List at least three points that made them successful or dull.
FURTHER READINGS
Anonymous. 1987. "How to do it?" (Articles from British Medical Journal), British
Medical Association, London.
Price Waterhouse Siddik. 1987. "Effective Business Communications," Course Material,
Price Waterhouse Siddik, Jakarta.
This session was originally developed by Dr. Sri Suryawati (Indonesia) and revised by
Dr. Beverly Summers (South Africa). Photographs provided by Dr. Sri Suryawati.
1
SESSION GUIDE
ORAL PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES
SESSION NOTES
DELIVERING A PRESENTATION
A well-planned and well-structured presentation can be
ineffective because of presentation delivery. The delivery
phase can make or ruin a presentation. There are four key
factors in the successful delivery of a presentation.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Timing
Attention
Personal approach
Preparation and rehearsal
1. Timing
Timing is of crucial importance. Do not ramble or talk needlessly. Some people freeze,
while others cannot stop talking once they begin. Try to stick to a prepared speech.
Some questions during the presentation might be difficult to answer, and it is best to
dispose of them politely, but quickly. When you return to your prepared speech, you
are in control. If you become diverted to a
detailed answer, the time may slip away,
and you may find the audience looking at
the clock. The amount of time required for
a given presentation should be determined
in advance. As a general guide, one slide
needs 1 to 1.5 minutes. So, if your
presentation consists of 50 slides and you
only have 30 minutes, you will have to rush
your delivery and may not succeed in
conveying your message. Judge your timing
by practice.
2
SESSION GUIDE
ORAL PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES
2. Attention Span
Voice
A
T
T
E
N
T
I
O
N
Repeat
key
ideas
Jokes
TIME
The level of an audience's attention during a presentation varies considerably. In
general, attention is high at the beginning of the presentation, but tends to fall after 10
minutes. Therefore, it is important to highlight or repeat key ideas during a long (more
than 20 minutes) presentation. The speaker must be conscious of the attention span
concept, so the presentation can be carefully managed. Something like, "Let me
summarize what I just said..." will boost the level of attention. It is also important not to
simply fade away at the end of the presentation. Never leave the audience at a low
level of attention. The speaker should use some clue to alert the audience to the fact
that the end is coming and that they should expect a summary or highlights. Try
various ways to end the talk, instead of simply saying, "This is the end of my
presentation. Thank you. "
3. Personal Approach
Personal features of the
speaker have a major impact
on how the presentation is
received. Consider four
aspects: gesture, voice, eye
contact, and breathing.
Gesture
Gesture can be used to
highlight points or to
make additional
emphasis when needed.
However, do not repeat
the same gesture more than 20 times in a single presentation.
3
SESSION GUIDE
ORAL PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES
Voice
Voice is critical. The speaker should use sufficient volume to be heard. Modulation,
which is the process of varying the pitch or level of the voice, is also important.
Speaking in a monotone or at the same level might put the audience to sleep.
Monotonous high level voice should also be avoided, as it may be tiring to listen to.
Eye Contact
Eye contact is the process of looking in the
eyes of the audience as often as possible.
You will gain trust, involvement, and interest.
It is also important to face the audience, and
not look too frequently at the screen. The
smaller the size of audience, the more eye
contact is needed.
Breathing
Breathing is important so you can continue to talk
in a loud voice. Breathing can also be used to
generate a pause, which will help emphasize a point.
PREPARATION
The preparation of a presentation requires considerable time, perhaps one to two days
for a half-hour presentation. This is because the effectiveness of the presentation has
to be maximized. A verbal presentation should aim to convey a message to an
audience, but at the same time it must emphasize only the major points. Even though
too much detail in a presentation leads to a loss of focus, a verbal presentation is not
necessarily superficial or lacking rigor. A
verbal presentation requires that you
condense facts into concise ideas. Effective
presentations need good visual aids and a
logical sequence.
Use of Visual Aids
Visual aids help to make a presentation more
effective, mainly because they crystallize ideas
and assist in the retention of information.
Visual aids also keep the speaker on track and
generate interest.
4
SESSION GUIDE
ORAL PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES
Rules to Observe When Preparing Visual Aids
 Keep it simple: Keep visual aids
simple, so that the audience can easily
understand the concepts. A
complicated or vague visual aid is
counterproductive.
 Minimize words: Keep the amount of
text to a minimum to avoid the
audience spending time reading the
visual aid and not listening to you.
 Use large fonts: Make text and
numbers large, so that the audience
can read them easily.
 List key points: Make sure that you
show the key points clearly. This will
help the audience retain information.
 Use exact phrasing: Since the ideas are summarized into key points, no margin
exists for vague or imprecise wording.
 Use color: Color can highlight key points.
 Prepare handouts: If you prepare handouts along with visual aids, your audience
can make notes on the handouts.
Steps in Preparation of Visual Aids
The eight steps for preparing visual aids are presented below in a logical sequence.
Some steps are more or less important, depending on the nature of the presentation,
but a good presentation should contain some elements of each step.
Eight Steps for Preparing Visual Aids
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Situation
Theme
Storyline
Step 4:
Step 5:
Step 6:
Step 7:
Step 8:
Storyboard
Master
Production
Rehearsal
Evaluation
5
SESSION GUIDE
ORAL PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES
Step 1: Situation
It is essential to adapt and tailor the
message to match the audience's
expectations. First, be very clear
about the type of presentation and its
objective, i.e., whether it is
persuasive or instructional. Second,
assess the audience and the
situation carefully. How big will it be,
who will be present, what possible
resistance may arise, what is the
level of knowledge, and, most
important, how much time is
available?
Step 2: Theme
The theme or title should be concise, direct, and meaningful. Do not develop a longwinded theme and assume that it will become obvious during the presentation. It may
lead to feelings that the presentation is not focused, and the audience may become
confused and/or frustrated.
Step 3: Storyline
Write a storyline covering the major elements of the presentation. It involves breaking
down the theme into major components. The storyline is like a road map leading from
one place to another, passing through various checkpoints. It should be logical and not
too long; fewer than five checkpoints is generally manageable.
Step 4: Storyboard
In developing a storyboard, you simply break down the storyline into its major parts or
ideas. Once you have developed the storyboard, you have the basic framework of your
presentation. What is then needed is to develop the storyboard into slides. The basic
principle is “one slide for one idea.”
6
SESSION GUIDE
ORAL PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES
Theme
Problem
definition
Approach
Findings
Recommendation
Storyboard
Step 5: Master
Finalize a master version of the storyboard, or the presentation as a whole. For
example, for a 10-minute presentation, use an A4 sheet of paper for the master. Fold it
into eight or nine pieces (remember 1 to 1.5 minutes per slide), and write down your
storyboard in sequence. It is still handwritten, but it should represent close to the final
contents of each slide. The master version gives the speaker the total presentation in
perspective, before the final visual aids are prepared. More important, the master
allows for the full check of logic and contents of the presentation. It can be easily used
to rehearse while the visual aids are being produced.
Step 6: Production of Visual Aids
Once the speaker is satisfied with the
master, the production of slides can
proceed.
When preparing visual aids, allow
adequate time to get them right. It is very
rare to produce perfect slides at your first
attempt. You will need to revise, revise,
revise! Remember that what looks perfect
on the computer screen may print out or
project very differently.
Have only one key message per slide, overhead, or flip chart. This allows the presenter
to reinforce the key point without the audience reading ahead to the next key point.
7
SESSION GUIDE
ORAL PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES
Step 7: Rehearsal
The final step in preparation—often
omitted—is rehearsal. Adequate
rehearsal is essential for a good
presentation. In particular, it aims at
focusing on the development of each
visual aid, transitions, self-confidence,
and timing. When practicing with the
master or slides, the speaker may find
places where he or she feels
uncomfortable and where changes are
needed. The transition from slide to
slide and from section to section is
important. It needs to be practiced so
that there is a comfortable flow in the
presentation as a whole. Otherwise,
awkward gaps in the presentation delivery can occur.
Self-confidence is also an important issue. Practicing the presentation and using the
actual slides will help consolidate the speaker's confidence in the presentation
materials, and in the overall ideas that are being presented. Rehearse to ensure that
timing is reasonable. Ask comments from colleagues invited to your rehearsal.
Be careful where you stand and how you move around. If you stand in a fixed position,
you may block the view of the screen. If you move around too much, you may distract
from the visual aid.
Step 8: Evaluation
After making a presentation,
evaluate how the presentation
went. Did the audience "get" the
key points? Were the visual aids
clear and useful? Were the
audience's questions related to
the presented material? If
possible, prepare written
evaluation forms that can be
reviewed after the presentation.
8
SESSION GUIDE
ORAL PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES
CONCLUSION
Any professional can become an effective presenter if she or he follows the approach
described in this session. Knowledge of a topic is not enough; being able to
communicate useful information is equally important. Investing time and effort in
improving presentation skills is always rewarded.
9
SESSION GUIDE
ORAL PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES
ACTIVITY 1
Preparing a Visual Aid
As a group activity, prepare a visual aid related to producing visual aids. Each group
should use a different medium, such as flip charts, overheads, black or white boards, or
posters.
At the end of the preparation time, group members should review what has been
produced by other groups.
10
SESSION GUIDE
ORAL PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES
ACTIVITY 2
Oral Presentation Techniques
For this activity, complete the checklist individually. Then discuss your ratings with
colleagues in your group.
At the end discuss your comments in a plenary session with the presenter, other
groups, and the course director.
11
SESSION GUIDE
ORAL PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES
Checklist for Activity 2
Evaluation of Presentation Skills
Presenter:
Point
Evaluator:
Outstanding
Satisfactory
Poor
Timing
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Maintaining attention
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
- gesture
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
- voice
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
- eye contact
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
- breathing
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
- simplicity
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
- amount of text
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
- font
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
- clarity of key points
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
- exact phrasing
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
- use of visual aids
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Personal approach
Visual aids
Comments:
Strengths
Weaknesses
12