Conclusion outline
•Topic sentence
Fresh rephrasing of thesis statement
•Supporting sentences
Summarize or wrap up the main points in the body of the essay
Explain how ideas fit together
•Closing sentence
Final words
Connects back to the introduction
Provides a sense of closure
A few tips on writing a good concluding paragraph.
•include a brief summary of the paper's main points.
•ask a provocative question.
•use a quotation.
•evoke a vivid image.
•call for some sort of action.
•end with a warning.
•universalize (compare to other situations).
•suggest results or consequences.
I have not here been considering the literary use of language, but merely language as an instrument for
expressing and not for concealing or preventing thought….[O]ne ought to recognize that the present
political chaos is connected with the decay of language, and that one can probably bring about some
improvement by starting at the verbal end. If you simplify your English, you are freed from the worst
follies of orthodoxy. You cannot speak any of the necessary dialects, and when you make a stupid
remark its stupidity will be obvious, even to yourself. Political language…is designed to make lies sound
truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind. One cannot change
this all in a moment, but one can at least change one’s own habits, and from time to time one can even,
if one jeers loudly enough, send some worn-out and useless phrase…into the dustbin where it belongs.
—Orwell, "Politics and the English Language"
And so, while we are left on shore with the memory of a deflated and stinking carcass and of bullhorns
that blared and scattered us like flies, somewhere out beyond the rolled waters and the shining winter
sun, the whale sings its own death in matchless, sirenian strains.
—Finch, "Very Like a Whale"
For all we know, occasional viable crosses between humans and chimpanzees are possible. The natural
experiment must have been tried very infrequently, at least recently. If such off-spring are ever
produced, what will their legal status be? The cognitive abilities of chimpanzees force us, I think, to raise
searching questions about the boundaries of the community of beings to which special ethical
considerations are due, and can, I hope, help to extend our ethical perspectives downward through the
taxa on Earth and upwards to extraterrestrial organisms, if they exist.
—Sagan, "The Abstractions of Beasts"
If AIDS is natural, then there is no message in its spread. But by all that science has learned and all that
rationality proclaims, AIDS works by a mechanism—and we can discover it. Victory is not ordained by
any principle of progress, or any slogan of technology, so we shall have to fight like hell, and be
watchful. There is no message, but there is a mechanism.
—Gould, "The Terrifying Normalcy of AIDS"