AP world history chapter 1 Geography labeled on map Historical terms: 1. Complex Society 2. Paleolithic – settlements began, hunting and gathering started, social distinctions not based on wealth 3. Venus figures- named after roman goddess of love, small sculptures of woman, exaggerated sexual features. 4. social class; social structures – people getting classes based of trades and job in the societies, had a base in Neolithic settlements 5. hominid- creatures that walked upright on two feat 6. Lucy- woman skeleton 3.2 million years old earliest hominids 40% of her Skelton found 7. Neolithic – settlements and greater arts, known as the newer stone age. 8. Lascaux cave painting- paintings in deep caves in France , done to maybe represent good hunts 9. “Neolithic revolution” versus “agricultural transition” - a greater mass of population and settlements with land and domestication of animals Points to ponder (questions) 1. Homo Sapiens gained progressive control over their environment by devising tools and technologies for use. The development of a language for communication had an impact to share and pass on knowledge. Homo Sapiens did not adapt physically they adapted the natural environment to their use for control. 2. Lather Paleolithic people formed permanent settlements because they could hunt, gather, and grow their own crops. Cultivated crops became a major source of food and settlements formed around major waterways and family life became a bit more valued. There was no dominance of the sexes allowing for work and even showing favoritism to the females because of the larger diet contribution. 3. Language played a role in the development of Homo sapiens culture, versus the Neanderthal culture because communication and spread of knowledge helped hunt and pass intelligence between generations allowing a greater chance of survival. Homo sapiens had more complex ideas and used more compex languages then the Neanderthal culture limiting trial and error and thus raising survival rate. 4. Sometimes it was necessary for hunters/gathers to sometime resort to infanticide because of times of famine not allowing everyone to survive. The weakest must be killed off. Society worked so that groups could not grow too large for lack of food. Those that could not care for themselves were thus the weakest links. 5. The significant difference between the Paleolithic Era and Neolithic Era was technology. The Paleolithic society had trade going, ways to fish in deep water, sharp tools for sewing, and harpoons. In the Paleolithic Era art came to a higher meaning and figurines and cave paintings can be found. The Neolithic Era was the new stone age and had tools polished and cultivation became a major advancement. 6. There are not many large domesticated animals in Mesoamerica because many animals had been hunted to their existence. Mammoths, mastodons, and horses has disappeared from the Americas by 7000 B.C.E. But instead of domesticated animals they raised corn and many other crops such as beans and peppers. 7. Slash and burn farming spread agriculture because it involved frequent movement for farmers . The community would slash the bark of trees in the forest and then burn the dead trees to the ground. The result ended in a wood free fertile area of crops but weeds would invade the area and the soil lost the fertility. This migration spread farming through both the eastern and western hemispheres. 8. The cause and effect of: Population explosion happened after agriculter laid a base in the society. The population was spread thinly across the earth human species multiplied prodigiously after the increase in food supply. From 3000 B.C.E the population was 14 million to 500 B.C.E which it was 100 million. Social organization happened because more time could be devoted to leisure activity. For example Jericho a site of fresh water had two thousand people living in it. They made huts and cultivated animals encouraged specialization of labor. Speciation of labor- A surplus of food in these cities let others focus on other things then hunting. They crafted beads, textiles, pottery, baskets and other goods. 9. The significance of: Pottery- The Jomon people in central Japan produced the world’s first known pottery. But Neolithic craftsmen expanded on these ideas to make them into useful products such as pots. Metallurgy- The earliest metal to be worked with was copper. Copper occurs naturally in relatively pure and easy forms; by hammering it they could turn the metal into jewelry and simple tools. Then casting came around and then knives, axes, hoes, and weapons could be formed. Textiles- These survived from as early as 600 B.C.E. As animals were raised people experimented with breeding and developed ways of weaving and spinning fabric. This invention was probably made by woman who could do it while at home nursing to young. Social Distinctions- Permanent settlements were the first chance for people to accumulate wealth. They could trade food or products for other valuable goods. Privately owned land came around and because it was important for agriculture, it carried economic power. 10. The production of food became the basis of Neolithic society because it gave inventions and developments. It gave items of value to trade. The natural world was observed by farmers because the crops were the basis of society. Experience over generations gave predictions and thus made the work in the society easier and developments occurring. Not in the book question: Homo Sapien Sapiens are different from Homo Sapiens because of a greater development. Homo Sapien Sapiens have larger and more rounded skulls. The teeth and jaws are smaller then their ancestors. .