Review Sheet - University of San Diego

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Biology 190 – Fall 2012
Review Sheet - First Exam
I.
Characteristics of Biological Systems
A. Order/Hierarchy
- Emergent properties, reductionism, holism
B. Response to Environment
C. Energy Processing
- Autotrophic, heterotrophic
D. Regulation
- Homeostasis, feedback regulation (negative, positive)
E. Growth and Development
- Determinate, indeterminate
F. Reproduction
- Asexual, sexual
G. Evolutionary Adaptation
II.
Cellular Basis of Life
- Unicellular, multicellular
A. Cell Types
- Prokaryotic, eukaryotic, characteristics of both types
III.
-
Transmission of Heritable Information
DNA, nucleotides, genes, genome
-
Diversity of Life
Classification, taxonomy, binomial nomenclature, major taxa
IV.
V.
Biological Molecules
- Polymers, monomers
A. Carbohydrates – Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
B. Lipids – Fats, phospholipids, steroids
C. Proteins – Functions
D. Nucleic Acids – DNA, RNA
VI.
VII.
-
Scientific Method
Observation, Question, Hypothesis, Prediction, Results/Interpretation, Scientific theory
Induction, deduction
Experimental design (in situ, ex situ, treatment, control)
Evolution
Basics of evolutionary theory, including descent with modification and natural selection
Implications of evolutionary theory
VIII. History of Evolutionary Thought
A. Before Darwin – Aristotle (scala naturae), Linnaeus (taxonomy), Hutton (gradualism), Lamarck
(adaptation), Malthus (population dynamics), Cuvier (paleontology, extinction, catastrophism), Lyell
(uniformitarianism)
B. Darwin - Theory of Evolution
1. Observations leading to formulation of evolutionary theory
a. Similarities & differences among species in Galápagos Islands and South America
b. Principles of Geology by Lyell (uniformitarianism)
Biology 190 – Fall 2012
Review Sheet - First Exam
c. Artificial selection
d. Writings of Malthus on population growth
2. Major components of evolutionary theory (descent with modification, natural selection)
3. Major observations (overproduction, stability, limited resources, within-species variation,
heritability)
4. Major inferences (competition, differential fitness, gradual change)
IX.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
X.
Evidence Supporting Evolutionary Theory
Natural selection – Experimental evidence
Anatomical homologies – Homoplastic features, vestigial structures, convergent evolution
Embryological homologies
Molecular homologies – Conserved traits
Biogeography
Fossil record – Biases
Origins of Life on Earth
Basic time line
Characteristics of Early Earth - Storms, volcanism, UV radiation, meteors, atmospheric composition
Requirements - No free O2, energy source, chemical building blocks, time
Stages for Origin of First Cells – Abiotic synthesis, assembly, packaging, self-replication
Pre-Biotic Chemistry
1. People – Oparin, Haldane, Urey, Miller
2. Abiotic synthesis, hydrothermal vents, clay, protobionts, panspermia
E. Characteristics of Early Life – Self-replication (RNA vs. DNA), nutrition, aerobes, eukaryotes, serial
endosymbiosis
A.
B.
C.
D.
XI.
Geological Record
- Strata, stromatolites
A. Dating – Index fossils, radiometric dating
B. Geological time scale – Major eras/periods and events, mass extinctions, continental drift
XII.
-
Chromosomes
Composition, number in genome, chromatin, genes
XIII.
A.
B.
Cell Cycle
Generation time
M Phase – Mitosis (karyokinesis), cytokinesis
Interphase – G1, S phase, G2
Biology 190 – Fall 2012
Review Sheet - First Exam
XIV.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
Mitosis (Karyokinesis)
Know terms, phases, and major events in each phase
G2 of Interphase – Centrosomes, centrioles
Prophase – Aster, mitotic spindle, centromeres
Prometaphase – Spindle fibers, kinetochore, kinetochore microtubules
Metaphase – Metaphase plate
Anaphase – Chromosomes vs. chromatids
Telophase
Cytokinesis – Animal cells, plant cells, cleavage furrow, contractile ring, cell plate
Mitotic Spindle – Microtubules, tubulin, function
Binary Fission – Process, evolution of mitosis
XV.
-
Control of Cell Division
Cell types
Checkpoints – G1, G2, M
XVI.
A.
B.
C.
Sexual Life Cycles
Somatic cells – Diploid, autosomes, homologous pairs, loci
Gametes – Haploid, meiosis, fertilization, zygote
Alternation between haploid and diploid
XVII.
A.
Meiosis
Know terms, phases, and major events in each phase
Synapsis, tetrads, synaptonemal complex, chiasmata, crossing over, interphase
Meiosis vs. mitosis – Reduction division, genetic variation, differences between comparable phases
Review Session – Sunday, Oct 7, 6-8 pm, ST232
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