Sample written exam

2002/2003 I. semester
I. Define the following terms (max. 2-3 sentences)
(1 point for each correct response – max. 20 points)
1. twitch, 2. memory cell, 3. voltage-gated ion channel, 4. electrotonic conduction, 5. disaccharides, 6. annulus
fibrosus, 7. compensatory pause, 8. muscarinergic receptor, 9. van der Waals forces, 10. tricuspidal valve, 11.
propagating response, 12. synaptic vesicule, 13. fibrinogen, 14. hypopolarization, 15. cAMP, 16. fibrillation,
17. microvilli, 18. side chain, 19. monosaccharides, 20. collagen
II. Draw the longitudinal section of a sarcomere. Mark characteristic components and bands. On a separate cross
section show how actin and myosin filaments are arranged relative to each other.
(1 point for each correct component – max. 10 points)
III. Essay questions:
(5 point for each correct response – max. 25 points)
1. How can the heart adapt to an increase in peripheral resistance in the heart-lung preparation?
2. How can starving cause edema?
3. What kind of transmitter substances do you know? List some synapses where you can name the transmitter!
4. List examples for the participation of nucleotides, nucleosides or their derivates in important biological
processes in addition to their serving as building blocks for nucleic acids!
5. Breathing is intermittent. What factors ensure that hemoglobin is saturated continuously in the lung?
IV. Selection. Put a + or – sign before every statements below depending on whether you think the statement is true
or false! (Be aware that all statement can be correct, but it can also happen that all are false!)
(1 point for each correct component – max. 25 points)
1. The following process requires active transport:
a./ movement of Na+ ions into the cell during the ascending phase of the action potential
b./ repolarization in the heart muscle cell
c./ maintenance of the high intracellular K+ concentration
d./ maintenance of the Na+ gradient through the membrane of nerve cells
e./ in the sarcoplasma of skeletal muscles, elevation of Ca2+ concentration needed to induce contraction
2. H-bond is important in the following places:
a./ in the structure of fluid water
b./ in CO2 transport
c./ in interaction of actin and myosin filaments
d./ in stabilization of the α-helix
e./ in cholesterol-phospholid interaction in the cell membrane
3. It is true for the action potential:
a./ the amplitude depends only on the intracellular K+ concentration
b./ generation of action potentials use a large amount of energy
c./ Ca2+ ions can participate in the generation of action potentials
d./ the action potential lasts for 2-300 ms in heart muscle cells
e./ the ascending part is caused by the opening of K+ channels
4. It is true for the unmyelinated nerve fibers
a./ conduction velocity is lower than in myelinated fibers
b./ its ending always forms electric synapse
c./ all-or-none law does not apply to action potentials propagating on unmyelinated fibers
d./ the thinner the fiber the higher its conduction velocity
e./ during propagation, action potential is regenerated in every point of its membrane
5. These statements are valid for the blood
a./ fibrinogen is the largest fraction of plasma proteins
b./ following the removal of fibrin and blood cells from the blood, serum remains
c./ serum contains no proteins
d./ mature lymphocytes have no nucleus
e./ blood contains about 1 million times more red blood cells than white blood cells
V. Relation analysis. Put the appropriate letter before each statement-explanation pair below!
A – statement and explanation are both valid and there is a logical link between them
B – statement and explanation are both valid but there is no logical link between them
C – only the statement is valid
D – only the explanation is valid
E – neither the statement nor the explanation is valid
(2 point for each correct component – max. 20 points)
1./ Contraction of the skeletal muscle does not depend on the external Ca2+ concentration, because skeletal
muscle cells have large internal Ca2+ stores.
2./ Saltatory conduction is very fast, because action potentials are only regenerated at the nodes of Ranvier.
3./ The pupil does not receive sympathetic innervation, because there are no sympathetic fibers in the cranial
4./ Blood pressure is lower in the pulmonary circulation than in the systemic circulation, because the resistance
is lower in the pulmonary circulation than in the systemic circulation.
5./ At old age, cardiac output increases, because the systolic pressure increases.
6./ Skin circulation is mainly regulated by central effects, because skin is very important in thermoregulation.
7./ Volume of blood in the left ventricle is never constant, because either the mitral or the aortic valve is always
8./ The electric axis of the heart is normally directed downward and to the left, because the heart is located in
the left side of the body.
9./ Sympathetic stimulation decreases heart rate, because the increase of sympathetic tone enhances the strength
of contractions.
10. By climbing on the Himalaya we can get lung edema, because breathing of very cold air can result in
pneumonia (lung inflammation).
Marking principles:
Total: 100 points
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