Atomic Structure and Types of Atoms Atomic Structure The ___________________________ of an atom contains _____________________________ ___________________________ that together make up nearly all of an atom’s _____________. The only exception is the nucleus of the _____________________________atom, which usually consists of a single ________________________. A ____________________________________________ made of a series of energy levels occupies __________________________________________ of an atom. Size of an Atom If the nucleus of an atom were the size of a pencil eraser on home plate of this baseball field, its electrons could be farther away than the outfield. A carbon atom consists of protons and neutrons in a nucleus that is surrounded by electrons. Applying Concepts What effect do the neutrons in the nucleus have on the atom’s electric charge? _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ Comparing Particle Masses Although __________________________ occupy most of an atom’s _____________________, they don’t account for much of its mass. It takes almost ____________________ electrons to equal the mass of just ____________________. On the other hand, a proton and a neutron are about ______________________________________. Together, the _____________________________________ make up nearly ___________________ ___________________ of an atom. Atoms are _______________ to be measured in everyday units of mass, such as grams or kilograms. Instead, A scientists use units known as __________________________________________________. proton or a neutron has a mass equal to about ______________________________. The mass of an electron is about _________________________________. Atoms and Elements Each element consists of ____________________________________________ from the atoms of all other elements. One thing that makes each atom different is the __________________________________________ found in its nucleus. _______________________________________ Therefore, have the same number of protons. an element ________________________________________________ by the number of protons in the nucleus of its atoms. Atomic Number Every atom of an element has the _____________________________________________________. For example, the nucleus of every carbon atom contains ________________________________. Every ____________________________ atom has 8 protons, and every _______________ atom has 26 protons. Each element has a unique atomic number—____________________________________________ ________________________________. Carbon’s atomic number is 6, oxygen’s is 8, and iron’s is 26. Isotopes Although all atoms of an element have the same number of protons, their number of ______________ can vary. Atoms with the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons are called _________________________________ (eye suh tohps). Three isotopes Each An of carbon are illustrated in Figure 3. carbon atom has 6 protons, but you can see that the number of neutrons is ________________. isotope is identified by its mass number, which is the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. The most common isotope of carbon has a mass number of 12 (6 protons + 6 neutrons) and may be written as “carbon-12.” Two As other isotopes are carbon-13 and carbon-14. shown in Figure 3, a symbol with the mass number above and the atomic number below may also be used to represent an isotope. Although these carbon atoms have different mass numbers, all carbon atoms react the same way chemically. Isotopes Atoms of all isotopes of carbon contain 6 protons, but they differ in their number of neutrons. Carbon-12 is the most common isotope. Interpreting Diagrams Which isotope of carbon has the largest mass number? __________________ Ions Atoms An can also change the number of _________________________ they have. atom with an __________________ number of protons and electrons is electrically __________________. Atoms When can _____________________________________________________ electrons with other atoms. an atom has more or less electrons than protons, it is called an _____________. Ions are __________________________________________. Ions can either have __________________________ which would result in an overall ___________________ _______________ atom, or ________________________________ which would result in an overall _____________________________________________atom. Fill in the chart below with the three particles found in an atom. Particle Found Size (amu) Charge Diagram of an atom: Draw and label and atom with 7 protons, 7 neutrons, and 7 electrons below.