Study Guide to Go - Cengage Learning

Study Guide to Go
Chapter 14: Managing Change and Conflict
Chapter Outlines
Change: Organizational and Individual Perspectives
Types of Organizational Change
Individual Reactions to Change
Overcoming Resistance to Change
Why Do Employees Resist Change?
Strategies for Overcoming Resistance to Change
Making Change Happen
Planned Change Through Organization Development (OD)
Unofficial and Informal Grassroots Change
Managing Conflict
Dealing with the Two Faces of Conflict
Conflict Triggers
Resolving Conflict
anticipatory changes planned changes based on expected situations.
reactive changes changes made in response to unexpected situations.
incremental changes subsystem adjustments required to keep the organization
on course.
strategic changes altering the overall shape or direction of the organization.
organization development (OD) planned change programs intended to help
people and organizations function more effectively.
unfreezing neutralizing resistance by preparing people for change.
refreezing systematically following up a change program for lasting results.
tempered radicals people who quietly try to change the dominant organizational
culture in line with their convictions.
conflict incompatible behaviors that make another person less effective.
conflict trigger any factor that increases the chances of conflict.
Learning Objective Summary
Learning Objective 1: Describe four types of organizational change
according to the Nadler-Tushman model, and explain how people tend
to respond differently to changes they like and those they dislike.
• Nadler and Tushman’s model identifies four types of organizational change that
result from the interaction of anticipatory and reactive change with incremental
and strategic change. Four resulting types of change are:
- Tuning; kaizen (preventive maintenance, continuous improvement)
- Adaptation (changes in reaction to external problems)
- Re-orientation (frame bending, redirection of an organization)
- Re-creation (frame breaking, intense and risky change)
• People who like a change tend to go through three stages: unrealistic
optimism, reality shock, and constructive direction.
• When someone fears or dislikes a change, a more complex process involving
five stages tends to occur:
- Getting off on the wrong track
- Laughing it off
- Growing self-doubt
- Buying in
- Constructive direction
• Managers are challenged to help employees deal effectively with reality shock
and self-doubt.
Learning Objective 2: List at least six reasons why employees resist
change, and discuss what management can do about resistance to
• Employees resist change for many different reasons, including (but not limited
- Surprise
- Inertia
- Misunderstanding/Ignorance/Lack of-skills
- Emotional side effects
- Lack of trust
- Fear of failure
- Personality conflicts
- Poor timing
- Lack of tact
- Threat to job status/Security
- Breakup of work group
- Competing commitments
• Modern managers facing resistance to change can select from several
strategies, including education and communication, participation and
involvement, facilitation and support, negotiation and agreement, manipulation
and co-optation, and explicit and implicit coercion.
Learning Objective 3: Explain the unfreezing-change-refreezing
analogy in OD, describe a tempered radical, and identify the 5Ps in the
checklist for grassroots change agents.
• Organization development (OD) is a systematic approach to planned
organizational change.
• The principal objectives of OD are increased trust, better problem solving,
more effective communication, improved cooperation, and greater willingness to
• The typical OD program is a three-phase process of unfreezing, change, and
- During unfreezing, the situation is diagnosed and a change strategy is
- In the next phase, the change is introduced.
- The refreezing phase involves dealing with unanticipated problems and
evaluating the effectiveness of the change strategy.
• Unofficial and informal grassroots change can be initiated by tempered radicals,
who quietly follow their convictions when trying to change the dominant
organizational culture.
• Four guidelines for tempered radicals are (1) think small for big results, (2) be
authentic, (3) translate, and (4) don’t go it alone.
• The 5P checklist for grassroots change include:
- Preparation (develop concept, test assumptions, weigh costs and benefits)
- Purpose (specify measurable objectives, milestones, deadlines)
- Participation (refine concept while building support)
- Progress (keep things moving forward despite roadblocks)
- Persistence (foster realistic expectations and a sense of urgency)
Learning Objective 4: Contrast the competitive and cooperative conflict
styles, and identify five conflict resolution techniques.
• Competitive conflict is characterized by a destructive cycle of opposing goals,
mistrust and disbelief, and avoidance and a win-lose attitude. On the other hand,
cooperative conflict involves a constructive cycle of cooperative goals, trust and
reliance, and discussion and a win-win attitude.
• Conflict triggers can cause either constructive or destructive conflict.
• Destructive conflict can be resolved through problem solving, superordinate
goals, compromise, forcing, or smoothing.
Test Preppers
Test Prepper 14.1
True or False?
_____ 1. According to the Nadler-Tushman model, anticipatory changes are planned
changes for expected situations.
_____ 2. One type of change—tuning—involves kaizen, or continuous improvement.
_____ 3. Nadler and Tushman call re-creation “frame breaking” because it is the most
risky type.
_____ 4. Response patterns tend to be similar when people either like changes or when
they fear and dislike them.
_____ 5. When people like a proposed change, they typically begin with constructive
Multiple Choice
_____ 6. What type of changes are planned and based on expected situations?
a. Exponential
b. Anticipatory
c. Strategic
d. Incremental
e. Reactive
_____ 7. _____ change is not represented on either the vertical axis or horizontal axis of
the Nadler-Tushman model.
a. Incremental
b. Reactive
c. Strategic
d. Segmented
e. Anticipatory
_____ 8. According to the Nadler-Tushman model, what is the most common and least
risky type of change?
a. Re-creation
b. Strategic
c. Reactive
d. Adaptation
e. Tuning
_____ 9. Nadler and Tushman call re-orientation _____ because the organization is
significantly redirected.
a. adaptation
b. frame bending
c. frame breaking
d. unfreezing
e. tuning
_____ 10. _____ is typically an employee’s first response when coping with a change he
or she dislikes or fears.
a. Low self-esteem
b. Unrealistic optimism
c. Getting off on the wrong track
d. Laughing it off
e. Self-doubt
_____ 11. If Ivana is given an assignment that she has dreaded and feared for weeks,
she must reach the _____ step in the change-response cycle before successfully
a. laughing it off
b. buying in
c. understanding
d. peer acceptance
e. personal satisfaction
Test Prepper 14.2
True or False?
_____ 1. Surprise and inertia are among the most common reasons employees resist
_____ 2. In the facilitation-and-support strategy for overcoming resistance to change,
negotiating for cooperation is involved.
_____ 3. When trying to get employees to overcome their resistance to change, it is
never appropriate to rely on manipulation such as withholding information.
_____ 4. A major drawback of explicit and implicit coercion is that it can be risky if it
leaves people mad at the initiators.
Multiple Choice
_____ 5. According to the text, which of the following is not a reason that employees
resist change?
a. Breakup of a work group
b. Fear of failure
c. Technophobia
d. Emotional side effects
e. Misunderstanding, ignorance, or lack of skills
_____ 6. What strategy should managers use for overcoming resistance to change if the
concern is prevention rather than cure?
a. Education and communication
b. Explicit and implicit coercion
c. Negotiation and agreement
d. Manipulation and co-optation
e. Participation and involvement
_____ 7. The _____ strategy for overcoming resistance to change would be most
appropriate if an inventory specialist faced resistance to a new recordkeeping
technology because of fear and anxiety among employees.
a. explicit and implicit coercion
b. manipulation and co-optation
c. negotiation and agreement
d. education and involvement
e. facilitation and support
_____ 8. When a speedy change is necessary, management should use which strategy
for overcoming resistance to change?
a. Education and communication
b. Manipulation and co-optation
c. Participation and involvement
d. Explicit and implicit coercion
e. Facilitation and support
Test Prepper 14.3
True or False?
_____ 1. According to the OD process, refreezing is necessary before the change has
been introduced.
_____ 2. Grassroots change occurs from the top down, rather than from inside the
_____ 3. “Think big for small results” is a practical guideline for tempered radicals.
_____ 4. Top-level managers are the only ones who use the 5P checklist for change
_____ 5. “Planning” is one of the five Ps in the 5P checklist for change agents.
Multiple Choice
_____ 6. _____ is a good description of organization development (OD).
a. Frame bending
b. Employee renewal
c. Expectation shaping
d. Planned change
e. Organizational modification
_____ 7. To _____ is not one of the seven objectives of OD.
a. build trust and cooperation
b. encourage willingness to change
c. mentor young talent
d. increase personal responsibility for planning and implementing
e. encourage problem solving
_____ 8. In OD, _____ prepares the members of a social system for change and then
helps neutralize initial resistance.
a. unfreezing
b. implementation
c. refreezing
d. intervention
e. adjustment
_____ 9. Which guideline for tempered radicals involves building managerial support by
explaining the business case for ideas?
a. Be authentic.
b. Think small for big results.
c. Don’t go it alone.
d. Translate.
e. Be exploitative.
_____ 10. Relative to the 5P checklist for change agents, measurable objectives,
milestones, and deadlines are specified in which P?
a. Purpose
b. Persistence
c. Participation
d. Publication
e. Preparation
Test Prepper 14.4
True or False?
_____ 1. Conflict, by definition, is a negative and destructive aspect of organizational
_____ 2. The competitive conflict mode is associated with a win-lose attitude.
_____ 3. In the cooperative conflict cycle, cooperative goals are essential.
_____ 4. A conflict trigger is a circumstance that increases the chances of intergroup or
interpersonal conflict.
_____ 5. Common conflict triggers are personality clashes and time pressure.
_____ 6. Smoothing and superordinate goals are the only approaches that remove the
actual sources of conflict.
Multiple Choice
_____ 7. The two faces of conflict are
a. social and economic.
b. short-term and long-term.
c. competitive and cooperative.
d. personal and social.
e. static and dynamic.
_____ 8. Individuals involved in a cycle of competitive conflict typically have a(n) _____
a. win-win
b. collective
c. greedy
d. win-lose
e. altruistic
_____ 9. Personality clashes, communication breakdowns, and time pressure are
a. superordinate goals.
b. OD trouble spots.
c. OD failure factors.
d. constructive conflict.
e. conflict triggers.
_____ 10. Which conflict resolution technique involves a time-consuming search for
a. Problem solving
b. Superordinate goals
c. Compromise
d. Smoothing
e. Forcing
_____ 11. Which conflict resolution strategy relies on formal authority and power?
a. Problem solving
b. Avoidance
c. Compromise
d. Smoothing
e. Forcing
Test Prepper Answer Key
1. T
2. T
3. T
4. F
1. T
2. F
3. F
4. T
1. F
2. F
3. F
4. F
1. F
2. T
3. T
4. T
5. F
6. b
7. d
8. e
9. b
10. c
5. c
6. a
7. e
8. d
5. F
6. d
7. c
8. a
9. d
10. a
5. F
6. F
7. c
8. d
9. e
10. a
11. b
11. e