AP U.S. HISTORY I NAME ________________________ CH. 14 REVIEW SHEET: FORGING THE NATIONAL ECONOMY, 1790-1860 HANDOUT # _____ ante-bellum and post-bellum: respectively before and after the Civil War the market revolution: series of ante-bellum economic changes as a result of which most Americans began to produce goods and services for sale, rather than producing most of what they consumed. Note description in right column, p. 317. movement westward 1. the change in the center of the American population? [note map, p. 290] 2. life on the frontier? 3. the westward movement and the environment? 4. 5. 6. 7. changes in the American population to 1860 in total number? in urban population? in immigration, especially in the 1840’s and 1850’s? immigration in the 1840’s 8. what made America seem attractive to European immigrants? 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. immigration from Ireland reasons for leaving? why did Irish immigrants usually settle in cities? typical occupations for Irish immigrants? the meaning of NINA? relations with blacks? New York’s Tammany Hall? 16. immigration from Germany reasons for leaving? 17. typical place of settlement? 18. typical occupation? 19. German culture in America? 20. 21. 22. 23. nativists react to immigration reasons that many Americans disliked and feared immigrants? the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner (later the Know Nothing Party)? examples of anti-Catholic prejudice? the Industrial Revolution begins 24. the changes that occurred in the Industrial Revolution? 25. the country that began the Industrial Revolution? 26. why did Industrial Revolution come relatively late to the United States? 27. Samuel Slater’s contribution? 28. Eli Whitney’s invention? 29. the impact of Whitney’s invention on both the South and Northeast? 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. the impact of the 1807 Embargo and War of 1812 on American manufacturing? why so much demand for the protective tariff of 1816? Eli Whitney’s contribution to manufacturing? the invention of Elias Howe and Isaac Singer? the idea of limited liability? Samuel F.B. Morse’s invention? workers in the Industrial Revolution 36. the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the worker-employer relationship? 37. children as workers? 38. demands by workers in the 1820’s and 1830’s? 39. Martin Van Buren’s concession to workers? 40. Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842)? 41. [Not mentioned in your text, but important: the Fifth Amendment’s due process clause provided that “no 42. person . . . shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.” Conservative courts interpreted this clause as meaning that laws which regulated hours, working conditions, and pay were unconstitutional because of their limitations on owners’ property rights. The due process clause also was 43. important in the abolition controversy: slave owners claimed that this clause meant that they couldn’t be 44. be deprived of their otherwise lawful property.] women and the economy 45. working conditions for “factory girls” (such as at the Boston Associates’ Lowell Mill)? 46. other jobs for (mostly single) women? 47. the “cult of domesticity”? 48. the family in the mid-nineteenth century? changes in farm technology 49. John Deere’s invention? 50. Cyrus McCormick’s invention? 51. the change from subsistence farming (in which farmers produced almost all that they consumed)? transportation and communication innovations 52. the Lancaster Turnpike? 53. the National or Cumberland Road? [note map, p. 310] 54. Robert Fulton’s invention? 55. the route of the Erie Canal (built by New York state)? [note map, p. 312] 56. short and long-term economic effects of the canal? 57. the advantages of railroads over canals? 58. the area(s) in which most railroads were built? [text and map, p. 313] 59. initial problems with railroads? 60. improvements made to railroads? 61. Cyrus Field’s innovation? 62. what were the clipper ships? 63. what caused the end of the clipper era? 64. the Pony Express? [note route on map, p. 316] 65. what caused the end of the Pony Express? the impact of the transportation revolution 66. how did the transportation revolution affect the trans-Allegheny West? 67. sectional economic specialization in the ante-bellum United States? the market revolution creates a national economy 68. the significance of the Charles River Bridge case? [which involved a state-granted monopoly over the river] 69. changes in state incorporation laws? 70. the impact of the market revolution on social and economic inequality? 71. wage changes from 1820-1860 for unskilled workers?