Final Exam Study Guide Name:________________________ 1. A mineral must be inorganic, which means that it contains no materials that were once part of living things. 2. Generally, a rock is made up of a mixture of minerals and other materials. 3. Rock that forms from the cooling of magma below the surface or lava at the surface is called igneous rock. 4. In the rock cycle, what type or types of rock can change to form sedimentary rock? any type of rock 5. As depth beneath Earth's surface increases, temperature and pressure both increase. 6. How do geologists observe Earth's interior? by recording and studying seismic waves 7. What is the correct order (starting from the surface) of Earth's layers? a. crust, outer core, inner core, mantle b. mantle, outer core, inner core, crust c. crust, mantle, outer core, inner core d. outer core, inner core, crust, mantle 8. Earth's inner core is a dense ball of solid metal. 9. Heat is transferred within a fluid by convection currents. 10. What is Pangaea? the name of the supercontinent that existed millions of years ago 11. Any trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock is called a fossil. 12. In the process of sea-floor spreading, where does molten material rise from the mantle and erupt? along the mid-ocean ridge 13. The process by which the ocean floor sinks through a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle is known as subduction. 14. Most geologists think that the movement of Earth's plates is caused by convection currents in the asthenosphere. 15. The place where two plates come together is known as a convergent boundary. 16. The land between two normal faults may be uplifted to form fault-block mountain. 17. The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and triggers an earthquake is called the focus. 18. Compared to P waves and S waves, surface waves move slower. 19. Magma flows upward through cracks in rock because it is less dense than the surrounding solid material. 20. The agent of mechanical weathering in which rock is worn away by the grinding action of other rock particles is called abrasion. 21. Ice wedging causes mechanical weathering of rock by means of freezing and thawing of water. 22. What kind of weathering causes the mineral composition of rocks to change? chemical weathering 23. A hot and wet climate causes weathering to take place rapidly. 24. The most important factors in determining the rate of weathering are rock type and climate. 25. Which scientific skill are you using when you see that the sky is cloudy? making an observation 26. A controlled experiment is designed to test a(n) hypothesis. 27. A weather map is an example of a model. 28. A well-tested scientific concept that explains a wide range of observations is called a scientific theory. 29. Your teacher hands out a copy of a laboratory experiment. What is the first thing you should do to conduct the experiment safely? Review the lab and the safety procedures with your teacher. 30. Which unit would be most appropriate for measuring the mass of a cow? kg (kilogram) 31. How many meters are in a kilometer? 1,000 32. The basic SI unit of length is the meter (m). 33. The process by which natural forces move weathered rock and soil from one place to another is called erosion. 34. A stream or river that runs into another stream or river is called a tributary. 35. The three major fossil fuels are coal, oil, and natural gas. 36. Fossil fuels are considered nonrenewable resources because they take hundreds of millions of years to form. 37. The two most abundant gases in the atmosphere are nitrogen and oxygen. 38. Most pollution in the atmosphere comes from burning fossil fuels. 39. Instruments used to measure air pressure are called barometers. 40. As you rise farther in the atmosphere, air pressure decreases. 41. The main layers of the atmosphere are classified according to changes in temperature. 42. From Earth to space, the main layers in our atmosphere are: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere. 43. The ozone layer in the stratosphere absorbs ultraviolet radiation. 44. The greenhouse effect is the process by which gases hold heat in the atmosphere. 45. Winds are caused by differences in air pressure. 46. Clouds form when water vapor in the air becomes liquid water or ice crystals. 47. Any form of water that falls from clouds is called precipitation. 48. An air mass that formed over northern Mexico and affected the southwestern United States would be a continental tropical air mass. 49. When a rapidly moving cold air mass runs into a slowly moving warm air mass, the result is a(n) cold front. 50. A funnel-shaped cloud that touches Earth's surface is called a tornado. 51. People who study weather and try to predict it are called meteorologists. 52. The sun's rays are least direct near the poles. 53. The two main factors that determine the climate of a region are temperature and precipitation. 54. The climate on the leeward side of a mountain differs from that on the windward side mostly in the amount of rainfall. 55. The seasons are caused by the tilt of Earth's axis. 56. Increased carbon dioxide may cause global warming by trapping more heat in the atmosphere. 57. Day and night are caused by Earth's rotation on its axis. 58. Earth's rotation takes about 24 hours. 59. One complete revolution of Earth around the sun takes about one year. 60. When the north end of Earth's axis is tilted toward the sun, North America will experience more direct rays and longer days. 61. The phase of the moon you see depends on how much of the sunlit side of the moon faces Earth. 62. For a solar eclipse to occur, the moon must be directly between Earth and the sun. 63. Scientists think the moon was formed when a large object struck Earth, and material from both bodies combined. 64. The two factors that combine to keep the planets in orbit are gravity and inertia. 65. The sun produces energy by nuclear fusion. 66. What do all of the inner planets have in common? They are small and have rocky surfaces. 67. Earth is unique among the planets because of its oceans. 68. The atmospheres of the gas giant planets cannot escape into space because the planets have very strong gravity. 69. What do the first four outer planets have in common? They are much larger than Earth and do not have solid surfaces. 70. What shape are the orbits of most comets? long, narrow ellipses 71. When a meteoroid enters Earth's atmosphere, it produces a streak of light called a meteor. 72. The electromagnetic spectrum is all of the different types of electromagnetic waves. 73. A light-year is the distance light travels in a year. 74. Stars are classified according to their size, brightness, and temperature. 75. What color are the hottest stars? blue-white 76. All stars begin their lives as parts of nebulas. 77. When stars begin to run out of fuel, they first become red giants or supergiants. 78. Black holes form from stars that were more than 40 times the mass of the sun. 79. How are elliptical galaxies and spiral galaxies different? Elliptical galaxies have almost no gas or dust. 80. The Milky Way Galaxy is a spiral galaxy.