A mineral must be inorganic, which means that it contains

Final Exam Study Guide
1. A mineral must be inorganic, which means that it contains
no materials that were once part of living things.
2. Generally, a rock is made up of
a mixture of minerals and other materials.
3. Rock that forms from the cooling of magma below the surface or lava at the
surface is called
igneous rock.
4. In the rock cycle, what type or types of rock can change to form
sedimentary rock?
any type of rock
5. As depth beneath Earth's surface increases, temperature and pressure
both increase.
6. How do geologists observe Earth's interior?
by recording and studying seismic waves
7. What is the correct order (starting from the surface) of Earth's layers?
a. crust, outer core, inner core, mantle
b. mantle, outer core, inner core, crust
c. crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
d. outer core, inner core, crust, mantle
8. Earth's inner core is
a dense ball of solid metal.
9. Heat is transferred within a fluid by
convection currents.
10. What is Pangaea?
the name of the supercontinent that existed millions of years ago
11. Any trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock is called
12. In the process of sea-floor spreading, where does molten material rise from
the mantle and erupt?
along the mid-ocean ridge
13. The process by which the ocean floor sinks through a deep-ocean trench
and back into the mantle is known as
14. Most geologists think that the movement of Earth's plates is caused by
convection currents in the asthenosphere.
15. The place where two plates come together is known as a
convergent boundary.
16. The land between two normal faults may be uplifted to form
fault-block mountain.
17. The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and
triggers an earthquake is called the
18. Compared to P waves and S waves, surface waves move
19. Magma flows upward through cracks in rock because it is
less dense than the surrounding solid material.
20. The agent of mechanical weathering in which rock is worn away by the
grinding action of other rock particles is called
21. Ice wedging causes mechanical weathering of rock by means of
freezing and thawing of water.
22. What kind of weathering causes the mineral composition of rocks to
chemical weathering
23. A hot and wet climate causes weathering to take place
24. The most important factors in determining the rate of weathering are
rock type and climate.
25. Which scientific skill are you using when you see that the sky is cloudy?
making an observation
26. A controlled experiment is designed to test a(n)
27. A weather map is an example of a
28. A well-tested scientific concept that explains a wide range of observations
is called a
scientific theory.
29. Your teacher hands out a copy of a laboratory experiment. What is the first
thing you should do to conduct the experiment safely?
Review the lab and the safety procedures with your teacher.
30. Which unit would be most appropriate for measuring the mass of a cow?
kg (kilogram)
31. How many meters are in a kilometer?
32. The basic SI unit of length is the
meter (m).
33. The process by which natural forces move weathered rock and soil from
one place to another is called
34. A stream or river that runs into another stream or river is called a
35. The three major fossil fuels are coal, oil, and
natural gas.
36. Fossil fuels are considered nonrenewable resources because they
take hundreds of millions of years to form.
37. The two most abundant gases in the atmosphere are
nitrogen and oxygen.
38. Most pollution in the atmosphere comes from
burning fossil fuels.
39. Instruments used to measure air pressure are called
40. As you rise farther in the atmosphere, air pressure
41. The main layers of the atmosphere are classified according to changes in
42. From Earth to space, the main layers in our atmosphere are:
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere.
43. The ozone layer in the stratosphere absorbs
ultraviolet radiation.
44. The greenhouse effect is
the process by which gases hold heat in the atmosphere.
45. Winds are caused by differences in
air pressure.
46. Clouds form when water vapor in the air
becomes liquid water or ice crystals.
47. Any form of water that falls from clouds is called
48. An air mass that formed over northern Mexico and affected the
southwestern United States would be a
continental tropical air mass.
49. When a rapidly moving cold air mass runs into a slowly moving warm air
mass, the result is a(n)
cold front.
50. A funnel-shaped cloud that touches Earth's surface is called a
51. People who study weather and try to predict it are called
52. The sun's rays are least direct
near the poles.
53. The two main factors that determine the climate of a region are
temperature and precipitation.
54. The climate on the leeward side of a mountain differs from that on the
windward side mostly in
the amount of rainfall.
55. The seasons are caused by
the tilt of Earth's axis.
56. Increased carbon dioxide may cause global warming by
trapping more heat in the atmosphere.
57. Day and night are caused by
Earth's rotation on its axis.
58. Earth's rotation takes about
24 hours.
59. One complete revolution of Earth around the sun takes about
one year.
60. When the north end of Earth's axis is tilted toward the sun, North America
will experience
more direct rays and longer days.
61. The phase of the moon you see depends on
how much of the sunlit side of the moon faces Earth.
62. For a solar eclipse to occur,
the moon must be directly between Earth and the sun.
63. Scientists think the moon was formed when
a large object struck Earth, and material from both bodies combined.
64. The two factors that combine to keep the planets in orbit are
gravity and inertia.
65. The sun produces energy by
nuclear fusion.
66. What do all of the inner planets have in common?
They are small and have rocky surfaces.
67. Earth is unique among the planets because of
its oceans.
68. The atmospheres of the gas giant planets cannot escape into space
the planets have very strong gravity.
69. What do the first four outer planets have in common?
They are much larger than Earth and do not have solid surfaces.
70. What shape are the orbits of most comets?
long, narrow ellipses
71. When a meteoroid enters Earth's atmosphere, it produces a streak of light
called a
72. The electromagnetic spectrum is
all of the different types of electromagnetic waves.
73. A light-year is
the distance light travels in a year.
74. Stars are classified according to their
size, brightness, and temperature.
75. What color are the hottest stars?
76. All stars begin their lives as parts of
77. When stars begin to run out of fuel, they first become
red giants or supergiants.
78. Black holes form from stars that
were more than 40 times the mass of the sun.
79. How are elliptical galaxies and spiral galaxies different?
Elliptical galaxies have almost no gas or dust.
80. The Milky Way Galaxy is a
spiral galaxy.