1) Advances during the Paleolithic Age: - Use of stone (and wood) tools - Use of fire - Spoken language (to pass on knowledge) Notes: These are the more important advances. There are others mentioned also, like weaving baskets to store food, but they are less crucial. You might also mention “religious beliefs and practices”, but this is iffy. While it is true that this developed (probably) in the Paleolithic Age, you could argue that it isn’t really an “advance”. The same for “division of labor by sex” – that was something that happened during the Paleolithic Age, but I’m not sure it counts as an advance either. Advances during the Neolithic Age: - Better stone tools (more specifically: greater precision in chipping and grinding) - Domestication of animals - Beginnings of agriculture - Pottery - Permanent buildings/settlements - Flax and wool clothing Notes: The first three of these are the most important. You won’t lose points for not mentioning the last three as advances. How was life different in the Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages: Paleolithic Neolithic People were hunter-gatherers People began to grow crops and raise animals (they got food by hunting, fishing, and for food (agriculture developed) gathering, not by growing anything) They were nomadic They started to settle in villages, in order to (they traveled around, searching for and tend their crops following food sources) The population is small and stayed more or less the same over time People had less control over nature The population starts to greatly increase People had more control over nature Other things to note: - Basket-making is an advance of the Paleolithic, not Neolithic Age. - People made clothes in the Paleolithic Age too. They just started to use certain new materials in the Neolithic Age. - Civilization is not something we say happened in the Paleolithic Age or the Neolithic Age. It came later. - You can describe Neolithic stone tool technology as “better”, “more sophisticated”, or “more precise”, but not “more specific”. 2) Notes: - When the question asks you to “compare”, you need to say clearly what is the same and what is different about the thing you are supposed to compare. - There was a lot of information in the book about different time periods in both these regions. The question doesn’t ask you to be that specific – that is, you don’t need to talk about the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom, or the Sumerians, the Babylonians, etc., just speak generally about the two regions, Egypt and Mesopotamia. For example: Both developed in river valleys -- good locations for agriculture However, in Egypt, life was more stable, while in Mesopotamia, it tended to be more uncertain. Here’s why: In both, rivers were a central feature The Nile river floods regularly, and right when it was most needed The Mesopotamian rivers are much less predictable Other geographical features were different Egypt was more protected from invaders: on the west by desert, on the south by cataracts in the Nile (places it’s hard to sail ships past), on the north and east by seas. Mesopotamia was more open, more subject to invasions from outsiders. The Nile was like a big highway that helped unify Egypt quite early in its history, while Mesopotamia was unified at later points, by successive groups of conquerors. Therefore: Egypt: more stable, secure, optimistic Mesopotamia: more unstable, uncertain, pessimistic etc. You should also talk about at least some of the following: Class structure Both divided society into classes But were there differences between the classes in Egypt vs Mesopotamia? Religion Egypt: everything was thought of as part of religion; Mesopotamia: religion and other things, like government, were often more separated Egyptian pharaoh was a god; Mesopotamian rulers might be representatives of gods, but weren’t gods themselves Egypt: greatly concerned with afterlife; Mesopotamia: more concerned with problems of now etc. Role of women Slavery etc. 3) Many of you wrote something very close to this: They succeeded thanks to a large, well-disciplined army and a society that powerfully valued military virtues. Fierce and cruel, they boasted of their own brutality, at least in part to terrorize real and potential enemies. Unlike earlier empires, the Assyrian Empire systematically and profitably exploited the area it held. In addition to maintaining their empire, the Assyrians had to defend it against the incursions of barbarians on its frontiers. In the seventh century BCE this task had so drained the overextended empire that it was left vulnerable to internal rebellion. This is a reasonably complete answer, although you should also talk about the effective way they organized their empire (see pg 28 in your textbooks). You should also include more specific examples. The Hittite and Egyptian empires are mentioned in the question, you should talk about them in your answer. You should also say a bit more about the internal rebellion that destroyed the empire. But the most important thing: Don’t copy whole sentences or phrases directly from the book. You guys know better by now. 4) Fundamental beliefs of the ancient Hebrews: There is only one god, their God; he is the creator and ruler of the universe (monotheism) Other early civilizations (those in Mesopotamia, Egypt, etc., also Greece and Rome) believed in many gods, although one god might be the most important or main god (polytheism) God doesn’t look like a man, or an animal, or a natural force or object (like the winds or the sun); he is so far beyond and above everything that he can’t be pictured at all Other civilizations have paintings, statues, etc. of their gods, which are generally in one of the forms listed above (or a combination of them) God made a covenant (an agreement with promises on both sides) with the Hebrews that they are his chosen people, who he would protect and reward, as long as they believe in Him and follow His laws God is a strict but just judge. He acts righteously and demands that people do the same. He punishes people for their misdeeds, but will relent if they repent. Some gods in other early civilizations punish mankind for bad behavior, but these gods aren’t bound to behave in any particular way. They can pretty much do whatever they want. A lot of their actions are because of things like anger, greed, jealousy, love (or lust), just plain liking or disliking certain people, etc. 5) Notes: Maybe this wasn’t clear, but for a question like this, you should give specific examples. It’s true that some elements of religion, philosophy, science, law, political systems, etc. were passed on to “Western Civilization”, but you should talk about what exactly some of these elements were.