Philosophy 313 Study sheet for midterm – Midterm: February 23, 2011 The following list of terms and concepts is to assist you in studying for the short answer section of the test. There will be 10 short answer questions on the test, of which you are to answer 8 (5 points each): Socratic method knowledge vs. opinion fact/value distinction justice parts of the soul more reality/more satisfaction analogy of the cave Ideas (or Forms) teleology righteous indignation habituation happiness mean pleasure/happiness distinction reason vice and virtue good friends first nature/second nature TRC overcompensation capital punishment moderation in all things Two of the following essay questions will be on the midterm (just as they appear here), and you are to write on one of them (60 points): 1. In the Euthyphro, Socrates questions Euthyphro about the nature of holiness. This form of questioning has often been called the Socratic method. Explain his Socrates' manner of questioning. This process of questioning also led both to Socrates' eventual trial and conviction, and it led to his conclusion that if he is wise it is only insofar as he knows that he knows nothing. What motivated Socrates' questioning, and how did it lead to these two results, and what in particular is meant by asserting that he is wise insofar as he knows nothing? 2. Aristotle argues that to be happy we must make the right decisions as consistently and often as we can. Detail the argument that Aristotle lays out to justify this claim and elaborate what it means and entails. Turn then to discuss why virtue is the same thing as making the “right decisions,” or why only the virtuous person can be happy. And finally, discuss the TRC as it relates to what Aristotle argues. 3. Both Plato and Aristotle set out to determine what is just, best, and good in human actions, but they each come to a very different conclusion about what these moral judgments look like. Compare and contrast Plato and Aristotle on these points and in the context of examples detail who you think provides the best account of ethics.