1. Assess needs and formulate goals
2. Select resistance equipment
3. Select resistance training method
4. Select exercises and order of
*Limitation (e.g. risk, injury)
*Design (e.g. time, facility, equipment)
*Health, fitness, appearance
*Motivational strategy and personality – learning style
*Strength, hypertrophy, muscular endurance, power
*Functional needs (muscular balance, posture, occupation)
*Weight loss or gain
*Preferences and expectations (e.g. equipment, outcomes
*Equipment (and brand) pros and cons
*Constant, variable, accommodating resistance
*Free weights, machines
*Bands, tubes, balls, boards
*Standard (simple) sets
*Super sets
*Compound sets or tri-sets
*Split routine
*Negative (forced repetition)
*Large to small muscle groups
*Multi-joint to single joint
*Agonist-antagonist (alternating push and pull)
*Upper body-lower body (alternating)
*Stabilizers (e.g. trunk) later in order
*Complex or sport-specific exercises
5. Assign resistance intensity and weight
6. Establish resistance volume
7. Assign and monitor resistance
8. Design warm-up and cool-down
*Exercises in more than one plane
*Overdevelopment of unnecessary areas
*Balanced, unbalanced (e.g. more front than back exercises)
*Weak, high-need areas first
*Coordinated with training method
*Based on goal (e.g. strength, hypertrophy)
*Established from assessment or during demo (e.g. percent of 1 RM or trial and
error (5-10RM)
*Interdependent with volume (sets x reps x load)
*Match reps to load (based on goals)
*Momentary failure for trained clients (greater neural activity)
*Large muscle groups may require higher percent 1RM
*Sets x reps x load = volume
*Rest between sets reflects objective, size of muscle group, and reps x load
*Time under tension (e.g. slower movements)
*Time under tension for workout affected by rest time
*Minimum 2-3/week
*Volume first, intensity second
*One volume factor modified at a time: (Example 1: increase reps: 2 x 12-15; then
3 x 10); (Example 2 (strength): 2 x 12 at 100; then 3 x 8 at 110; then 4 x 6 at 120
*5% increase in load tolerable (when upper limit of reps is met)
*Minimum length of program 6 weeks
*Periodization stages used when program duration is longer.
*Monitoring used to cue progression timing
*Related to client’s objectives (motivation)
*Follow-up checks established (objective, subjective)
*Primary safety precautions and execution mechanics listed and demonstrated
*Cardiovascular warm-up and cool-down transitions
*Specific joint and muscle stretching
*Suits nature of the prescription and special client considerations