Charles V, king of Spain and Habsburg emperor, becomes the Holy

HH205P – Final Exam Terms (04 May 2004)
Brahe (633) – Danish astronomer; created model of planets moving around the sun which then orbited Earth (better model and didn’t upset
the church); created huge, highly accurate tables of astronomical data
Charles I of England (534) – (king from the movie we watched); invaded France and needed money but Parliament passed the Petition of
Right (no taxes w/o Parliament approval) so the king did not call Parliament from 1629 to 1640; got money from medieval financial claims;
had to call Parl for money after he pushed the Scots into rebellion; marches into Parl w/soldiers to arrest 5 members and starts Civil War
“Cheese country” / “Chalk country” – describes contrast between arable chalk lands (large estates) in the south and pastoral cheese
country (family farms separated by distance; encouraged religious independence) in the north England
Church Ale – church or parish festival (commemoration / dedication of a church)
Copernicus (632) – theorized Earth went around the sun; ideas published with disclaimer that his theories were math abstractions, not
actual propositions (kept him clear of the church)
Descartes (515) – French; father of analytic geometry and the founder of modern rationalism
Diderot (615) – French; wrote the Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia (653) – intended to summarize all adv. philosophical, scientific, and tech know; 17 volumes of text, 11 of pics published over 21yrs
English Civil War (533) – erected barriers against royal absolutism; unrest began w/ James and went out of control with Charles I; 1642-49
10. Galileo (634) – used telescope to collect astro data (first to do so); shows moons circle Jupiter; at odds w/Church; said Earth orbits sun
11. Glorious Revolution (607) – when William of Orange became King of England
12. Geocentric System – theory of solar system with Earth in the center
13. Heliocentric System – theory of solar system with sun in the center
14. Humanism (631) – cultural and intellectual movement of the Renaissance that emphasized secular concerns
15. Kepler (633) – believed all was created according to math laws; said planets traveled in ellipses and speed varied w/distance from the sun
16. Mary I of Scotland, Q of Scots (516) – Catholic; imprisoned after 2 nobles murdered; executed in Eng after plotting against Q Eliz
17. “Bloody” Mary (516) – Mary I of England; tried to return to Catholicism through force / execution; currency reform to stop devaluation
18. Montesquieu (660, 664) – suggested sovereignty was best split among branches of gov
19. New Model Army (541) – under Cromwell; well-trained and recruited, not forced – superior in education than the avg man
20. Newton (642) – English; great scientific mind; studied component parts of problems; proved existence of gravity (practical); greatly praised
21. Oliver Cromwell (535) – Puritan; distrusted Charles; fought for relig toleration; Cromwell beats Charles, ejects Presbys from Parl by force,
and forced the “Rump” Parl to vote to end monarchy, execute Charles, and abolish the hereditary House of Lords  Eng = new republic
22. philosophe (651) – Enlightenment thinkers; abstract thinkers but focused on clear, comprehensible styles
23. popular sovereignty – doctrine that government is created by and subject to the will of the people
24. Puritans (534) – powerful influence in House of Commons; often prosperous merchants; James monopolistic policies angered them
25. rationalism: "I think therefore I am" – by Descartes; argues this proves he exists; argues over limitations of senses
26. royal sovereignty – doctrine that gov is in the hands of a sovereign; hereditary
27. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (662) – introduced morality to philosophe; first to talk about popular sovereignty, democracy; utopian
28. Salon (669) – like gov-funded academies for gathering to learn, etc but operated informally; often org by aristocratic women for aristocracy
29. Seven Years' War (623) – major mid-17th cen. conflict (Fr and Indian War in US); deciding factor often Brit Navy not armies; Fr surrenders
30. Plassey (623) (1757) – French defeat by Brit in India established Brit superiority there
31. Plains of Abraham (Quebec) (623) (1759) – climax of naval battles of the 7 Years’ War; French defeated
32. Voltaire (600) – French; epitomizes the Age of Enlightenment; attacks injustice and intolerance
33. William of Orange (608-614) – husband of Mary; invited by Whigs and Tories to invade Eng to restore relig and political freedom; accepted
because he despised French expansionist moves; invaded in a bloodless coup (King James flees, Parliament declares throne vacant) …
signs Bill of Rights with Parliament (trial by jury, habeas corpus, etc), Act of Tolerance (allowed non-Anglican protestants to worship freely).