Evolution Study Guide Ch. 14 and 15.1-3 Ch. 14.1 and 14.3 Vocabulary: Evolution, Adaptation, Descent with Modification, Natural Selection, Lamarck’s Inheritance of “Acquired Characteristics”; Population; Variation; Artificial Selection Concepts Influences on Darwin o Lamarck What did Lamarck get right? What was incorrect about Lamarck’s theory? Why doesn’t natural selection result in “perfect” organisms? What is meant by “acquired traits”? Why aren’t acquired traits passed on? o Lyell How did his work change people’s thought on the age of the Earth? Why is Earth being more than a few thousand years old essential to Darwin’s ideas on evolution? o Malthus How did Malthus work influence Darwin’s understanding of natural selection? o Farmers/Breeders & Artifical Selection How did artificial selection by farmers help Darwin develop his theory of evolution through natural selection? Darwin’s Theory of Evolution o What is the process or mechanism that results in evolutionary changes? o Explain how the process works – How does it lead to populations adapting to the environment? o Be able to describe his main points: Struggle for existence Survival of the fittest Give the biological definition of fitness What does the phrase “survival of the fittest” mean? Does an individual have to be the “fittest” to be biologically fit? Descent with modification (Descent from ancestral species through common ancestors). o Importance of genetic variation What are the 2 sources of genetic variation in populations? Mutations Contribution of sexual reproduction to evolution o Why do populations adapt/evolve and not individual organisms? 14.2: Evidence for Evolution Vocabulary: Fossil & Fossil record; extinct; homologous structure; vestigial structure; analogous structure; common ancestor Evidence of evolution. o Fossil record o Embryology/development o Comparative anatomy (homologous structures) How can homologous and vestigial structures show evolutionary relationships? What is the difference between homologous and analogous structures? o Molecular biology o Geographic distribution of species (Pangaea) o Artificial selection v. Natural selection. Ch. 14.4: Microevolution & the Gene Pool Vocabulary: Gene pool; mutation; Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; Genetic Drift; Gene Flow; Fitness What is microevolution? Influence of genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, and natural selection on allele frequency in a gene pool. o Bottle neck effect & founder effect Genetic equilibrium – What is it? What conditions must be met for it to occur? (Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium) 14.5: Examples of Evolution through Natural Selection Vocabulary: Sickle cell anemia; antibiotics and antibiotic resistance Relate pesticide resistance in insects, antibiotic resistance in bacteria, Black Plague & HIV resistance in humans to natural selection. Relate natural selection to Darwin’s finches & persistence of the sickle-cell allele in Africa 15.1: Evolution of New Species Vocabulary: Biological Species concept; Macroevolution; Speciation; Reproductive Isolation; Geographic Isolation; Adaptive Radiation; Punctuated Equilibrium What is macroevolution? How does it compare to microevolution? Define a biological species o List & describe types of reproductive barriers between species. o Contribution of geographic isolation and adaptive radiation to species diversity. Opportunities that set the stage for adaptive radiation. Convergent v. Divergent evolution. o Homologous v. analogous structures Coevolution Punctuated equilibrium model v. gradualism 15.2 and 15.3: Fossil Record Evolution and Mass extinction events How are fossils formed? What methods are used to determine the dates/ages of fossils determined? What is the Cambrian explosion in the rock record? Describe a mass extinction event recorded in the rock record. When did it occur? What caused it? How did it influence the life forms on the planet? (before vs. after).