Archaeological research at the oasis of Tayma, Saudi Arabia

Archaeological research at the oasis of Tayma, Saudi Arabia
"The Archaeology of the Oasis Tayma: Continuity and
Change of Subsistence in the arid north-western region
of the Arabian Peninsula from the Neolithic to Islamic
periods" is a joint-project of the General Commission
for Tourism and Antiquities (until 2007 of the Deputy
Ministry of Education), Riyadh, and the German
Archaeological Institute, Berlin. Regular seasons of
excavation have been conducted since 2004.
The oasis of Tayma
(27°37'30" N,
38°32'30" E, ca 830 m
above sea level) is
located in the northwest of the Arabian
Peninsula, an area
which is characterised
by its arid climate.
Modern Tayma
belongs to the
Province of Tabuk. Tayma is situated in a flat basin and is
surrounded by several mountainous heights, such as the
Jabal Ghunaym. North of the settlement is a large seasonal
salt pan (sebkha) occupied by a lake several ten thousand
years ago. The characteristic environment of the oasis is
best represented by the Bir Hadaj well of some 18 m
diameter in the city centre and extended palm gardens. The
rapidly growing modern settlement presently covers about
one third of ancient Tayma, which has an estimated area of
some 500 ha. The most visible remains of the ancient
occupation are the high surrounding walls.
View on the site
Orient Department
Further Information on
the Section in Charge
There are three main factors which impact
on the historical interpretation of Tayma:
the existence of an oasis as a precondition
for the settlement of humans, its function
as a trade-station on the incense route, and
the residence of the Babylonian king
Nabonidus in the mid-6th century BC.
Archaeological excavations have
encountered phases of occupation which
may last from the Middle Bronze Age
(early 2nd millennium BC) to the Islamic
periods. The earliest remains of settlement City wall of Tayma
consist of the remains of a silex-industry
for the production of beads (4th millennium BC). The rich record of written sources from
the site and its surroundings have provided mainly Taymanitic ('Thamudic') and Aramaic
inscriptions of the 1st millennium BC. Assyrian sources inform us about contacts
between Assyria and the Arab tribes (from the 9th century BC). After the mention of a
caravan from Tayma in a source of the mid-8th century BC from the Middle Euphrates,
Tayma enters Assyrian written history only when it has to pay tribute to Tiglath-pileser
III. Further Assyrian (and biblical) sources recognise the role of Tayma as a trading post,
and in the following centuries relations between the neighbouring cities Tayma and
Dedan (present day Khuraybah) were characterised by rivalry. Further information about
the nature of the connections between Tayma and superimposed political entities during
the Neo-Babylonian and Achaemenid periods is known only in very general terms. The
same goes for the relationship to regional powers, such as the Lihyanite kingdom. During
the Minaean period (ca 400 BC) Tayma ceded pre-eminence to Dedan. Later on it formed
a part of the Nabataean and Romano-Byzantine realm. Although the poet Imru' al-Qays
(d. 540 AD) says that the rain-storm "does not leave a palm-tree in Tayma nor a house
unless it is built of stone", the city played an important role in the expansion of Islam
towards the Levant. As late as the 11th century, according to the historian al-Bakri,
Tayma was known as a wealthy place with a large city wall.
The project has the following main aims:
- The acquisition, recording and study of archaeological data:
topography, natural environment (specifically hydrology and
geology), chronology and material culture.
- Social relations and patterns of subsistence: political
organisation, organisation of family / kinship groups,
techniques of subsistence and production, cultic life.
- Cultural, political and economic foreign relations: settlement
patterns, regional and supra-regional relations (Mesopotamia,
South Arabia, Gulf region, Levant, Egypt).
In order to achieve the aims of research effective digital
recording and processing of the data is necessary by means of
the project's Geographic Information System (GISTa) which
is adapted continuously to the working programme of the
Tayma Stone
archaeological project. Outreach work is concerned with
measures taken on the site itself (presentation of the site and
selected contexts, consolidation and restoration measures, co-operation with the local
museum) and at communicating and presenting the results via Internet, by lectures and
through publications.
History of Research
In 1877 C. Doughty delivered the first detailed
description of the site of Tayma, including its
architecture and pottery, and a sketch map.
Subsequently, the investigations of C. Huber in
1883 (later together with J. Euting) resulted in the
Tayma Stele to be exposed in the Musée du
Louvre. Decades later, H.St J. Philby started
archaeological and environmental observations at
the site (1951). The publication by Winnett and
Read (1970) of their survey in NW Arabia
provided not only a wealth of textual evidence
from the site (mainly dated to the 6th century BC)
but also presented the characteristic painted
potsherds. After that, P. Parr conducted
excavations at a nearby watch-tower. The
General site plan (1980)
systematic investigation and record of
archaeological sites by the Directorate of
Antiquities of the Kingdom which started in the mid-1970s and saw the foundation of the
journal ATLAL led to further research at the site. In 1979, G. Bawden, C. Edens and R.
Miller commenced large-scale research at Tayma (Qasr al-Hamra, Qasr al-Radm) and
published a plan of the site. The Directorate of Antiquities continued excavations at
Tayma, in the cemeteries, irrigation systems and remains of Islamic buildings (see
bibliography). On the epigraphic side, attention has been given to the discovery of
Taymanitic inscriptions, though not at the site itself but in the vicinity, mentioning king
Nabonidus of Babylon (Müller and Said 2002).
Current Work
Elevation model of Tayma and its
Since 2004 there have been two seasons
of field work every year. Up until now the
excavations cover in all some 3,000 sq.m.
So far, a total of nine building levels have
been identified in four of altogether six
periods of occupation on top of the natural
sandstone bedrock. Archaeological
excavations focus on the following
- Sequence, distribution and chronology of
public buildings and of residential
quarters of the occupation period 3 (Iron
Age, c. 1st millennium BC until the first
centuries AD) at the central elevation of
the site (Qraya) by means of stratigraphic
Topographic map of the site
excavations in soundings and open-area
trenches. A temple and extended public
architecture have been identified in the
northeastern part of Qraya (Area E); to the
South-West there are remains of
residential buildings (Areas F and D).
- Stratigraphic research of remains from
occupation periods 3 and 2 northwest of
the previously mentioned area (mid-1st
millennium BC until the Islamic period),
on both sides of the internal wall (Area
C); investigation of the ditch identified by
a geomagnetic prospection (Area G) and
Geomagnetic prospection
of settlement remains in this area (Squares
C2, C3, C4, C6).
- Research into remains of the occupation period 4 (late 2nd/early 1st millennia BC)
between the internal and external wall (Area O) and investigations of contemporary
remains at the external wall (Area A in the west and square W10 in the south).
- Identification of remains of occupation period 5 (early 2nd millennium BC) to which
the construction of the external wall has been attributed.
- Selected soundings as result of observed peculiarities at the surface or anomalies
detected by the geophysical prospections (Areas H, L, M).
- At the invitation by the Antiquities Department, salvage excavations were carried out in
2004 in the burial ground of Talah (Area S), located south-east of Tayma.
- Studies on the construction and organisation of the fortification system (sub-project of
the Brandenburg Technical University at Cottbus (BTU)), since 2006 funded by the Fritz
Thyssen Stiftung.
- From stratified contexts samples were collected for scientific analyses, such as, e.g.,
radiocarbon (C14) dating, palaeobotanical and palaeozoological studies.
- Geological and geo-archaeological research (University of Marburg) as well as studies
of the hydrology and water management (University of Applied Sciences, Lübeck) are
parts of the research of the ancient environment.
The archaeological project integrates a
number of disciplines from historical
studies (Semitic philology, Assyriology,
architectural history and restoration) and
geo-sciences (palaeozoology,
palaeobotany, hydrology, geology and
geophysics, minaralogy and petrology),
thereby involving a variety of methods.
The interdisciplinary co-operation is
continuously being extended and
intensified. This is also valid for the cooperation between the departments of the
Excavations in Area E
German Archaeological Institute and
partner universities on a national and international level.
Examples of applied methods:
- As regards information technology, the GIS and its relational database system serve as
the backbone of the project. Geographical information and all archaeological data on
contexts and objects are collected and processed.
- Architectural remains are recorded digitally (tachymeter, photogrammetry) and by
hand-drawings. The complete data are digitally processed.
- Systematic survey data are supported by GPS.
- At the end of excavations, free-standing building remains are stabilised by supporting
constructions; larger areas are covered by a stabile plastic cover. In order to protect the
excavated remains, it was started to implement conservation measures.
- Two collecting areas for stones (lapidaria) have been constructed, one as a storage place
for well-preserved building elements, while the other is for stone-tools.
- The fabric-type reference chart for pottery contains seven main petrographic groups,
which have been determined by thin-section analysis.
- Before C14-analysis is carried out the species of the samples are defined.
Large building (temple) in Area E
Late Babylonian stele
Head of a Lihyanite statue
Fragments of arm and hand of a statue
Body fragments of Lihyanite statues
Incense burner with Nabataean
At the inner city wall (Area C)
Sandstone stele (Area C)
Excavations in the central area: Qraya
On top of Qraya (also known as Qasr alAblaq), the central elevation of Tayma,
close by some trenches of former
excavations, five building levels of the
occupation period 3 (Iron Age) have been
identified above the bedrock. The middle
building level is characterised by remains
of a large representative building used as a
temple, which underwent several
renovations. The building covers an area
Painted pottery from Area O
of more than 500 m2. The construction of
the best-preserved building level can
tentatively be dated to a period covering
the reign of the Liyhanite dynasty until the
Nabataeans (4th cent. BC until 2nd cent.
AD). Under its foundation level there are
remains of earlier buildings of a different
orientation. A columned hall forms the
core-area of the penultimate building
stage of the edifice. At this time, the
building was reached by stairs through the
south-western façade, probably flanked by Wooden fragments with incised
two sphinxes. During or after the 3rd
decoration (Area O)
century BC (C14) the space between the
columns was filled. For the construction
parts of the equipment of the temple of the
Lihyanite period have been re-used, such
as an originally painted fragment of a
larger than life-size statue (it is the second
one from Tayma; an identical one is
stored in the Museum). The fragment can
be compared with similar statues
discovered by Jaussen and Savignac in
Khuraybah and others recently found by
Area S: Stone tombs at Talah
the Saudi-Arabian expedition at the site,
also in a temple. Nearby to the statue
fragment, the head and parts of the arms
and legs have been found. Pillars with
inscriptions by the Lihyanite king TLMY
(from his 30th and 40th regnal year) and
another inscription from his 20th year
show that there was a periodical
deposition of Lihyanite royal inscriptions
in a cultic building in the centre of Tayma.
Details of the historical and political
background have yet to be investigated. It
is most probable that the inscriptions can
Palm-tree gardens in the oasis
be attributed to the first TLMY of the
Lihyanite king list who reigned 44 years (Farès-Drappeau 2005). Decorative building
elements and an inscription of king Aretas IV evidence the relations between Hegra and
Tayma during the Nabataean period.
Stele of King Nabonidus
In the debris outside the temple, a stele with a semi-circular field of representation has
been discovered. From the iconographic representation (standing royal figure, three astral
symbols of gods) and an engraved cuneiform inscription it can be identified as a product
of the Babylonian king Nabonidus, who stayed for 10 years in Tayma during the mid-6th
century BC. Whereas this newly found fragment conforms to established Babylonian
iconography, the representation of a royal figure on the so-called Tayma-stone is carved
on the lateral side of the monument. This stele, found some 120 years ago, can be dated
by its Aramaic inscription to the 5th/4th centuries BC. In the meantime, additional stone
fragments of cuneiform inscriptions have also been discovered one of them mentioning a
king of Babylon (lugal tin.tir).
Building remains South-West of the temple
South-West of the temple a residential area has been excavated, dating to the 2nd to 4th
centuries AD thus covering the latest attested building stage of the temple. From the
debris several incense burners have been recovered, one of them bearing a Nabataean
inscription. Further South-West four buildings of the 3rd / 4th centuries AD (C14) have
been discovered in Area F. Their ground-plan and dimensions are regular (11 x 11 m).
The inventory allows a reconstruction of several domestic activities such as food
processing and food consumption (tools, kitchen equipment, pottery). Under these
buildings further building remains have been identified associated with dichromatic
pottery of the mid-1st millennium BC. A context similar to the discoveries in Area F may
have been excavated in Area D at the South-Western end of the main mound of Qraya.
City wall
Remains of the wall-system of Tayma are preserved up to a length of 15 km. At some
places the walls are preserved up to 8 m in height. Earlier studies have evidenced various
construction techniques. Also a number of rectangular towers belong to the city wall. On
the interior side of the wall there are staircases and corridors. On both sides of the wall
there are massive accumulations of sand. Since 2006 the city walls of Tayma have been
investigated by a research project by the Brandenburg Technical University at Cottbus
(BTU) in co-operation with the department for architecture of the German
Archaeological Institute. This research includes the systematic surveying of the city walls
by DGPS as well as investigations of their organisation and construction techniques by
means of archaeological excavation.
Occupation of the 2nd/1st millennium BC at the outer wall
Painted surface pottery and terracotta figurines suggested the presence of 1st millennium
BC contexts at the western outer city wall. Attached to the probably latest stone phase of
the wall - sitting upon the mud-brick construction - there was a small building (Area A).
The pottery record (pottery similar to the so-called Qurayyah painted ware) and the 14Cdates from the stratigraphic sequence point to the occupation period 4 (late 2nd / early 1st
millennium BC). The location of the building on top of the immense sand deposits
supports the hypothesis that the city wall itself belongs to an earlier period.
The outer wall - a construction of the 2nd millennium BC
The outer wall has been erected on sediments lying on top on the natural bedrock. For its
construction mudbricks and sandstone blocks have been used - also at its lowest level.
Scientific analysis by means of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the sand
accumulations reaching the city wall (Square C1) have provided a date for the deposition
of these materials at the foot of the city wall. It ranges between 2,069 and 1,527 BC and
supports the archaeological dating of the wall. Further OSL-samples are presently being
Between the outer and inner walls
Between outer and inner wall a rectangular building has been discovered in Area O. It
contains numerous fragments of charred wood and ivory objects as well as carbonised
remains of grapes and barley. Several figurines made of faience represent Egyptian
goddesses such as Isis and Bastet/Sakhmet. The numerous sherds of polychrome painted
pottery and also unpainted items are very similar in shape and decoration to the pottery
from the building attached to the outer wall in Area A. They resemble also the so-called
Qurayyah painted ware. Also for this complex, therefore, a date from the late 2nd
millennium BC to the early first millennium BC can be envisaged, i.e. occupation period
4 (C14-dates indicate a 12th to 10th century BC date for this context). East of the
building there is an extended complex with stone-paved rooms and a corridor which once
may have been an entrance. One of the younger graves discovered in Area O was
covered with a so-called eye-stele bearing an Aramaic inscription. It had been re-used for
this burial.
Ditch at the inner wall
Due to the identification of the geophysical anomaly outside the inner wall as a ditch
(Area G) several stratigraphic soundings were laid out with the aim of detecting the
sequence of construction of the two walls and the occupation between them (Area C).
Excavations revealed a ditch (12 m wide, at least 6 m wide) running parallel to the inner
city wall. The material resulting from excavation in antiquity of the ditch may have been
used as filling material of the inner wall, which has been constructed of quarry-stones.
Aramaic Inscriptions and a stele
At the edge of the ditch, in a secondary position, a four-line Aramaic stone-inscription
was found. The text mentions a small outlet in the city wall and the Lihyanite ruler
LWDN who can be dated slightly later than the above-mentioned TLMY who deposited
his inscriptions in the temple (Area E). The governor of Tayma at that time was a certain
Natir-El, and it remains to be studied which degree of autonomy he enjoyed.
On the interior side of the inner wall, a stele of sandstone has been reused. Its obverse
shows a male figure with rich hair and a short dress, carrying weapons. The nearest
admittedly very general, parallels can be found in rock carvings. The three remaining
sides of the stone show standing figures. On the original obverse there was a seated
figure in a frame. These images had been removed deliberately, most probably before the
male figure with the weapons was carved. An Aramaic inscription (5th/4th centuries
BC), carved in relief, belongs to the earlier images and gives a first clue to the dating of
the object and its context. However, it is also possible that the inner city wall was only
erected after the late 1st century BC, as suggested by a C14-date from a sample found on
what is believed to be remains of the city wall of the time of the Lihyanite dynasty.
Building remains of the Islamic period and their conservation
Between the outer and inner walls there is a large enclosure with rooms at its corners (c.
2,500 sq.m. extension), probably dating to the early Islamic period (occupation period 2).
At latest during the 8th century AD, several small compounds were built inside the inner
wall (and not on top of the main mound), probably in the period of the large enclosure.
Conservation work started at the remains of the large enclosure.
Salvage excavations (Area S)
Numerous graves have been discovered on rock formations south-east of Tayma. A
group of five stone-chambers was excavated in 2004. The grave chambers are between
3.5 and 5 m2 in size. Each of these chambers is closed by a large door stone and several
other large stones. In spite of robbery and heavy damage it was possible to identify the
burials as collective internments (up to five individuals per grave). At the rear side, there
were two small stone cists with individual child burials. The excavated grave complex
belongs to occupation period 3 (Iron Age), as attested by painted pottery sherds of the socalled Sana'iya-type from the excavation area known as "Industrial site", some 1 km to
the north, and by the architecture and layout of the graves.
Stone tools and the production of beads
The high frequency of stone drills and carnelian beads has been reported before. Whereas
the stone tool industries had been tentatively dated to the Iron Age, an earlier date may
be possible as suggested by comparative material from northern Saudi-Arabia and SouthEastern Turkey (Chalcolithic). The question of whether the flint industries were once
located at the edge of the sebkha is a matter for future study.
Conservation and restauration
Apart from the expanding modern occupation the environmental conditions considerably
contribute to the destruction of ancient remains. Archaeological knowledge and the
experience of restorers are being used for the development of strategies for consolidation
and conservation of the architectural remains of Tayma. Objects made of organic
materials are treated by a restaurator.
The palaeo-environment
Palaeo-botany and Palaeo-zoology
The first results of palaeobotanic research suggests a vegetation typical for an oasis (date
palm, artemisia, tamarisk and also grape-vine). Attested animal species are sheep, goat
and a number of birds of prey which may not have been located at Tayma itself.
Preliminary analysis of the animal bones shows a very limited occurrence of camel bones
in occupation period 4, whereas in the subsequent period (Iron Age) there is an
increasing number of camel bones (nearly 20%).
Geology and Hydrology
Research into the geology and the hydrology of the settlement are part of those
investigations contributing to the reconstruction of the environment of the oasis. A
number of transects have been laid out in the sabkha by a team from Marburg University
by means of core drilling, thus offering a section of the deposits in the sebkha. These
drillings, analysis of aerial photographs and the results of a sounding cutting the narrow
mud wall at the northern border of the settlement (Area SE) allow the following
hypothetical reconstruction: The wall divided areas suitable for irrigation located on a
terrace (2.3 m below surface) from the salty zones of the sabkha located at a lower level
(4.3 m below surface). At the same time its function was that of a drainage wall. The wall
had no significance for the fortification. A sounding at the northern end of the sabkha
showed algae and gastropods attached to the Ordovician bedrock suggesting the
existence of a palaeo-lake whose level once was 13 m higher than the present-day surface
of the sabkha. Hydrological research of the University of Applied Sciences at Lübeck are
being continued as sub-project sponsored by the German Research Foundation (DFG).
Numerous installation for water supply and water management as well as constructions
for the protection from water have been identified.
Archaeological research at Tayma is based on a written cooperative agreement between
the Deputy Ministry of Archaeology, Riyadh (then Deputy Minister Professor Dr Sa'ad
al-Rashid), and the German Archaeological Institute, Oriental Department, Berlin
(Professor Dr Ricardo Eichmann). Its inception is due to the initiative and constant
support of Professor Dr Said F. al-Said, King Saud University, Riyadh. The permission
and support of the Antiquities Department (Director General for research and survey, Dr
Daifallah al-Talhi) creates the framework for the project. Since 1st January 2008 the
responsibility at the Saudi-Arabian side lies with the Supreme Commission for Tourism
(President: Professor Dr Ali Ghabban).
Archaeological fieldwork is carried out jointly by the Oriental Department of the German
Archaeological Institute in Berlin (Director Professor Dr Ricardo Eichmann, Field
Director Dr Arnulf Hausleiter [DFG], GIS and documentation Dr Thomas Götzelt
[DFG]), and the King Saud University (Professor Dr Said al-Said). Specific research
issues are studied by several individual sub-projects (see below). The Museum of
Archaeology and Ethnography in Tayma is the physical base of the project (Director:
Mohammed al-Najem). The interest in the Saudi-Arabian-German cooperative project
shown by the Emir of Tabuk, Prince Fahd bin Sultan bin Abdulaziz resulted in his visit in
spring 2006. The understanding for the archaeological work from the Muhafadh of
Tayma and the Head of the Municipality of Tayma is appreciated. The German Embassy
at Riyadh and the consulate general at Jeddah provided assistance in administrative and
logistical matters and public outreach.
Scientific Co-operation
- C14-Analysis: Dr Joachim Görsdorf, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Berlin,
Zentrale (until 2007).
- City wall studies (Sub-project, Fritz Thyssen Stiftung): Professor Dr Klaus Rheidt
(Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus), Dr Peter I. Schneider (Deutsches
Archäologisches Institut, Architekturreferat).
- Epigraphy, languages and history of research: Professor Said F. al-Said, King Saud
University, Riyadh.
- Epigraphy, cuneiform texts: Dr Hanspeter Schaudig, University of Heidelberg, Seminar
für Sprachen und Kulturen des Vorderen Orients, Assyriologie.
- Geology and Geo-archaeology: Professor Dr Helmut Brückner, Jan Bosch, Max Engel,
Universität Marburg.
- History and textual sources: Professor Dr Norbert Nebes, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität
- Hydrology and water management (Sub-project, DFG): Professor Dr Matthias Grottker,
Benjamin Heemeier, University of Applied Science, Lübeck.
- Mineralogy and Petrography (Sub-project pottery analysis): Professor Dr Claudio
Mazzoli, Mirko Giannetta, Unversity of Padua, Department of Mineralogy and
- Palaeobotany: Drs Reinder Neef, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Berlin, Zentrale.
- Palaeozoology: Professor Dr Norbert Benecke, Michael Hochmuth, Deutsches
Archäologisches Institut, Berlin, Zentrale.
Scientific services
- C14-Analysis: Leibniz-Labor für Altersbestimmungen, Christian-Albrechts-Universität,
- Conservation, restauration (organic materials), consolidation of buildings remains:
Restaurierungsberatung Götz, Lindlar, Breu.
- Conservation, restauration (stone), consolidation of building remains: ars restauro.
- Geophysical prospections (2005): Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik,
- Geophysical prospections (2004): GGH GbR, Freiburg.
- Topographic grit: University of Applied Sciences, Chair for Geomatic Engineering,
Majid al-Anizy (2004-2, 2005-1, 2006, 2007-2, 2008-1), Norman Basler (2008-1),
Abdallah Basonbul (2004-2, 2005-1, 2006-1), Erol Bayirli (2005-1), André Beuger
(2004-2, 2005-1, 2006-2), Jan Bosch (2006-2, 2007-1, 2008-1), Christian Bost (2005-2,
2006-1), Helmut Brückner (2006-2, 2007-1), Andreas Bussas (2008-1), Oliver Conradt
(2007-1), Mirco Cusin (2004-1, 2005-1, 2006-2007), Khalil / Abdulaziz al-Dayel (2005,
2007-2, 2008-1), Florian Deinert (2007-1), Ricardo Eichmann (seit 2004), Max Engel
(2006-2, 2007-1, 2008-1), Khaled Eskoubi (2008-1), Thomas Ewender (2006-1), Denny
Fauter (2007-1), Armin Frei (2006-1), Mirko Giannetta (2006-1, 2007-1), Stefan Giese
(2004-1), Andreas Ginau (2008-1), Thomas Götzelt (seit 2004-2), Matthias Grottker
(2005-1, 2007-1, 2008-1), Detlef Grubert (2004-1), Johannes Hackl (2004-1, 2005-1),
Rene Hahn (2008-1), Matthias Hamann (2005-1, 2007-1), Holger Hanisch-Gräfe (20061, 2007-1, 2008-1), Arnulf Hausleiter (seit 2004), Benjamin Heemeier (2007-1), Markus
Heller (2008-1), Jeza al-Herbi (2005, 2006-1), Michael Hochmuth (2006-1), Christian
Hübner (2004-1), Andrea Intilia (seit 2005), Heinz Jantzen (2006-1, 2007-1, 2008-1),
Ulrich Kapp (2008-1), Patrick Keilholz (2007-1, 2008-1), Daniel Keller (2006-2), Arno
Kose (2006, 2007-1, 2008-1), Johannes Kramer (2008-1), Jan Krumnow (2005, 2006,
2007-1, 2008-1), Guido Licciardi (2005-2), Gereon Lindlar (2007-2, 2008-1), Sebastiano
Lora (2006-1, 2007, 2008-1), Claudio Mazzoli (2006-1, 2007-1), Max Möhle (2006,
2007-1), Franz Moll (2005, 2006-1), Maher al-Moosa (2004-2, 2005, 2006-2), Faisal alMughailly (2006-2), Mohammed al-Najem (seit 2004), Reinder Neef (2005-1, 2006-1,
2008-1), Andreas Nette (2007-1), Arno Patzelt (2007-1, 2008-1), Emmanuele Petiti
(2008-1), Alexander Pfützner (2008-1), Christoph Purschwitz (2005-1, 2006-1, 2007-1),
Thomas Pusinelli (2007-1), Naif al-Qanur (2004-2, 2005, 2006), Andrea Ricci (2005-1),
Said F. al-Said (2004-2), Alberto Savioli (2004), Hanspeter Schaudig (2005-1), Olivier
Scheeck (2006-1), Peter Schneider (2005-1, 2006, 2007-1, 2008-1), Philipp
Schwinghammer (2004-1, 2005-1, 2006-1), Sirri Seren (2005-1), Marian Stickel (20051), Gunnar Sperveslage (2005-2, 2006-1, 2007-1, 2008-1), Francelin Tourtet (2008-1),
Anselm Ullmann (2006-1), Friedrich Weigel (2008-1), Kai Wellenbrock (2008-1), Hagen
Wirsing (seit 2007), Florian Ziegler (2005-2, 2006-1).
Our heartfelt thanks go to all institutions and individuals who supported the project.
Special thanks go to the Saudi-Arabian expedition at Khuraybah and to the SaudiArabian-French expedition at Madain Saleh for their hospitality. We are indebted to the
increasing number of visitors to Tayma and their interest in the research of the cooperative project.
Prof. Dr. phil. Ricardo Eichmann
Vorderasiatische Archäologie
Telefon: 03018-7711-0
Telefax: 03018-7711-189