Final Exam Review

Biology 2121 – Final Exam Review
Spring Semester 2009 – Mr. Dawson
I. Introduction, Chemistry, Cytology and Histology (Chapters 1-4)
A. Introduction to the Human Body
1. Homeostasis
 Distinguish between positive and negative feedback systems. Give examples.
 Know the negative feedback system concerning glucose control. Know the functions of the hormones
insulin and glucagon.
 Know the organizational levels of life (atoms to cells to molecules to tissues………)
2. Life Functions
 Know the major life functions of all living things
 Distinguish between anabolic and catabolic processes. Give examples of each. Relate each to cellular
3. Anatomical Terms and Positions
 Know the major organs and main characteristics and functions of each major body system.
 Know the following directional terms of the body
o Dorsal, ventral, proximal, distal, medial, lateral, superficial, deep, superior, inferior
 Know the following regional terms of the body
o Cervical, acromial, axillary, brachial, carpal, pollex, patellar, hallux, fibular, femoral, inguinal,
coxal, thoracic, sterna, buccal, orbital, calcaneal, plantar, sacral, gluteal, olecranal, scapular,
occipital, otic
 Distinguish between a mid-saggital, transverse, frontal and oblique plane. Give examples.
 Distinguish between the dorsal body cavity and ventral body cavity
o Give examples of organs found within each cavity
o Define viscera
o Distinguish between the thoracic, pleural and pericardial cavities.
o Name organs found in the abdominopelvic cavity
B. Chemistry
1. Inorganic Chemistry
 Identify the four major elements found in the body
 Know how to use the atomic number found in the periodic table for each element to calculate the number of
valence electrons.
 Be able to use the atomic number to identify the number of protons and electrons in an atom. Be able to
use the atomic number to indicate the number of valance electrons found in an atom.
 Distinguish between an element, atom and molecule. Give examples.
 Distinguish between a solvent and solute in a solution.
 Know the locations of metals, nonmetals on the periodic chart.
 Know the types of ions formed by metals and nonmetals.
 Know the characteristics of ionic and covalent bonds. Give examples.
 Give examples of compounds that contain hydrogen bonds. Know how hydrogen bonds are formed.
 Know that the pH scale is based on hydrogen ion concentration.
 Given values for hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion concentration be able to classify a substance as an acid,
base or neutral substance.
 Know the numerical values of the pH scale for acids, bases and neutral substances.
2. Biochemistry
 Know that hydrolysis reactions break down larger organic substances into smaller ones via the insertion of
water molecules. Give examples.
 Know that dehydration reactions build up larger organic molecules from small molecules via the
elimination of a water molecule. Give examples.
 Know the functions of carbohydrates.
 Explain how monosaccharides form disaccharides and polysaccharides.
 Give example s of polysaccharides: starches, cellulose, and glycogen.
o Explain the significance of glycogen to the human body, where it is stored , etc.
o Know the monomer of each polysaccharide above.
 Know the functions of lipids.
 Know the structure and functions of each of the following lipids below
o Phospholipids, triglycerides, steroids
o Know the monomer of a lipid
o Know the structure of a fatty acid
 Know the structure and functions of proteins
o Know the momomer of a protein
o Know the bond between two amino acids
o Know the 4 structural levels of proteins
o Know what causes protein denaturation
o Know the function of an biological enzyme
 Know the two nucleic acids
 Know the differences between RNA and DNA
 Know the base pairing rules between bases in DNA and RNA
 Know the general structure of DNA
 Know that organic compounds contain carbon
C. Cytology
1. Organelles
 Know the functions of the following organelles: mitochondria, lysosomes, ER, ribosomes, golgi apparatus,
2. Plasma membrane
 Distinguish between the polar and nonpolar regions of the plasma membrane
 Distinguish between osmosis and diffusion
o Know the types of substances that enter and leave the plasma membrane freely or passively.
o Distinguish between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion. Give examples.
 Distinguish between passive and active transport. Give examples
 Describe how the sodium-potassium transport pump helps to maintain the plasma membrane potential
 Distinguish between exocytosis and endocytosis.
o Relate endocytosis to phagocytosis -white blood cells
3. Cytoplasm
 What is cytosol? How does it relate to the cytoplasm
4. Nucleus
 Know the function of the nucleolus and pores
 Know what chromatin is made of
5. Cell Cycle and Mitosis
 Know the events of the cell cycle. Know that interphase is the longest part of the cell cycle.
o Know the significance of the ‘S’ phase during interphase (concerning DNA).
 Know the significant events that take place in each phase of mitosis
 What is cytokinesis?
 What is the purpose of mitosis?
6. Chromatin, DNA and Cell Division
 What is the relationship between chromatin, DNA and Chromosomes
 In what phase do chromosomes appear in mitosis?
D. Histology
1. Epithelial Tissue
 Know the general characteristics and functions of epithelial tissue
 Identify the organs or places in the body where the following epithelial tissue is found.
o Simple squamous; simple cuboidal; simple columnar; transitional; pseudostratified ciliated
o What distinguishes simple from stratified epithelium?
2. Connective Tissue
 Know the general characteristics of connective tissue
 Know the four types of connective tissue
 Know how it differs from epithelial tissue (matrix, cells, etc.)\
 Know the cell types found in each type of epithelial tissue (fibrocytes, chondrocytes, etc.)
 Know where the following CT is found:
o Hyaline cartilage; Dense Irregular Connective Tisssue; Areolar CT; Bone; Fibrocartilage
3. Muscle Tissue
 Distinguish between the three types of muscle tissue types, locations found, function, etc.
o Smooth, cardiac and skeletal
4. Nervous Tissue
 Identify the basic parts of a neuron (dendrites, cell body, axon hillock, axon, axon terminals).
 Know the general characteristics and functions of nervous tissue
II. Integument, Skeletal System and Articulations (Chapters 5-8)
A. The Skin
1. Skin Divisions
 Know the general characteristics and functions of each skin region (epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous)
 Know the characteristics of the following layers of the epidermis (stratum basale, lucidium, corneum)
 Know the functions of each of these cells
o Melanocytes, Keratinocytes
 Know what substances are involved in forming skin color
2. Skin Appendages
o Know the general components of sweat
o Know the pH of sweat
 Know that sweat glands are merocrine glands and sebaceous glands are holocrine glands
o What is the difference between a merocrine and holocrine gland?
3. Skin Cancer
 Know the causes and general characteristics of the following types of skin cancer
o Basal cell; Squamous and Melanoma cancers
B. Bones and Skeletal Tissue
1. Classification of bones
o You are responsible for any bone studied in the lab or lecture
2. Functions and characteristics of bones
 Chemical composition
o Osteoid
o Organic parts (collagen)
o Inorganic hydroxyapatites (calcium phosphate salts)
 Distinguish between compact and spongy bone (know locations in long and flat bones)
 Know the parts of a long bone
o Diaphysis, epiphyses, epiphyseal line
 Know the locations and functions of red marrow
3. Histology of bone
 Know the following parts of the osteon
o Haversian canal; lamellae; canaliculi; lacunae, osteocytes; Sharpeys fibers and periosteium
4. Compare intramembranous and endochondral ossification of bone.
 Be able to give examples of bones that undergo each method of development
5. Bone Remodeling
 Know the role of osteoclasts and osteoblasts in bone remodeling.
 Know the roles of the following hormones in controlling blood calcium levels
o PTH and Calcitonin
C. Axial Skeleton
1. Definition and examples
2. Bones
 Be able to identify or answer questions concerning any of the following cranial bones
o Frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
 Know the sutures that separate each bone above
o Sphenoid
 Sella turcica
o Ethmoid
 Crista galli, and cribiform plate
o Mandible
 Coronoid process (temporalis muscle insertion point)
 Mandibular condyle (TMJ joint)
 Alveoli sockets
o Maxilla
 Palatine process (anterior hard palate)
 Zygomatic process
o Nasal Septum
 Vomer and Perpendicular plate
o Palatine
o Occipital
 Foramen magnum
 Occipital condyles
 External acoustic meatus
 Styloid process (attaches hyoid bone and neck muscles)
 Mastoid process
 Internal acoustic meatus (passageway for CN VIII)
3. Vertebrae (Vertebral Column)
 Distinguish between C1 and C2
 Know the locations and numbers of cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral vertebrae
 Describe how cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae differ in structure
o Table 7.2
4. Thoracic Cage
 Ribs
 Sternum
o Know the different parts of the sternum
D. Appendicular Skeleton
 For the bones listed below you should know their location; bones they articulate with (if applicable);
functions; general information, etc.
1. Definition
2. Shoulder Girdle
 Acromion; Coracoid process; Glenoid cavity;
3. Upper Arm
 head and neck; radial and coronoid fossa; olecranon fossa; capitulum and trochlea; deltoid tuberosity
4. Lower Arm, Wrist, Fingers
 Radius and ulna;
 Carpals; metacarpals and phalanges
5. Pelvic Girdle
 Greater sciatic notch; ilicac fossa; pubic and ilium bones; acetabulum; pubic symphysis; Ischium bone;
ischial tuberosity
6. Upper Leg; Lower Leg and foot
 Femur; linea spera; epicondyles; condyles; tibia and fibula; calcaneus; talus of the foot
E. Articulations
1. Classification of Joints
 Given a joint be able to classify it as synarthroses (immovable); amphiarthroses (slightly moveable);
diarthroses (freely moveable)
2. Fibrous Joints- know examples of fibrous joints
3. Cartilaginous Joints- know examples
4. Synovial Joints- examples
5. Given the following joints classify as plane; hinge; pivot; condyloid; saddle and ball and socket
 Elbow; sternoclavicular; hip; shoulder;;; atlantoaxial; hip; Shoulder
6. How do synovial joints differ from other types of joints?
III. Muscle Tissue and the Muscular System (Chapters 9-11)
A. Characteristics and Histology of Muscle Tissue
1. Types of muscle tissue
 Compare each type of muscle tissue based on appearance, striations, nuclei location, voluntary or
involuntary, location or organs (tissues) found in.
2. Gross Anatomy
 Connective Tissue Sheaths
Epimysium; perimysium and endomysium – know locations
Fascicle and muscle fibers
Muscle fiber cells
 Characteristics of:; sarcolemma; myofibrils and sarcomeres
 Types of Attachments
o Ligaments, tendons
 Sarcomeres
o Actin, myosin and titin
o Sarcoplasm and SR
 Calcium ions
o Regulatory proteins
 Tropomyosin, troponin
 Calcium ion role in producing a cross-bridge
o T-Tubules (function)
3. Microscopic Anatomy (see above)
 Myofibrils
 Sarcomeres
 Sliding Filament Model of Contraction
B. Skeletal Muscle Contractions / Neuromuscular Junctions – Physiology
1. The Neuromuscular Junction
 Release of neurotransmitter; ACh and AChE (enzyme); function of these enzymes
 Synaptic cleft and receptor sites on the muscular plate
 Action Potential production and effect on the SR – release of calcium
2. Excitation-Coupling Events
 Know role of calcium on cross-bridge formation; AP effects on calcium release
3. Cross-Bridge Cycle
 Know the role of ATP
C. Other
1. Muscle Twitch
 Muscle twitch and a myogram
2. Muscle Tone and Contractions
 Isotonic vs Isometric contractions; give examples also
3. Metabolism
 Direct phosphorylation via creatine phosphate (ATP production)
o Quick but not efficient
 Aerobic Respiration
o Requirements- oxygen and glucose or monosaccharide
o 1 glucose molecule produces how many ATP?
o Glycolysis
o Significance of pyruvic acid
o Carbon dioxide waste
 Anaerobic Respiration
Lactic acid fermentation
Net ATP produced
Lactic acid and sore muscles
4. Comparison of smooth muscle to skeletal muscle fiber
 Speed of contractions; organs served; voluntary vs involuntary
D. The Muscular System
1. Muscle Classification according to fascicle arrangement
2. Origin and Insertions- define only, no specific origins and insertions on the exam
 For the following muscles, know the location or area in which a muscle is found.
3. Muscles of the Head
 Masseter; platysma; obicularis oris and oculi
4. Muscles of the Neck
 Sternocleidomastoid
5. Muscles of the Abdomen and Back
 Trapezius; latissimus dorsi; rectus abdominus; external and internal obliques; transverse abdominus
6. Muscles of the Pelvic Area
 Levator ani; coccygeus
7. Muscles of the Upper Arms-Shoulder
 Biceps, triceps; deltoid; teres major; infraspinatus and supraspinatus; subscapularis
8. Muscles of the Lower Arms
 Flexors: pronator teres; flexor carpi radialis and ulnaris; Palmaris longus; flexor digitorum superficialis
 Extensors: extensor carpi ulnaris and radialis; extensor digitorum
 Other: interossei; lumbricals
9. Muscles of the Upper Legs
 Quadraceps: rectus femoris; vastus lateralis and medialis
 Hamstrings: biceps femoris; semitendinosus and semimembranosus
 Other: Sartorius; gracilis; abductors
10. Muscles of the Lower Legs
 Gastrocnemius; soleus; tibialis anterior; fibularis longus and brevis
11. Chest Muscles
 Pectoralis major and minor
12. Pelvic Area
 Psoas major; iliacus; pectineus
IV. The Nervous System
A. Anatomy and Neurophysiology
 Parts of the CNS
 Know general characteristics of the CNS and PNS neuroglia cells
o CNS: astrocytes; ependymal cells; oligodendrocytes
o PNS: Schwann cells
 Compare afferent and efferent neurons; interneurons
 Compare the somatic nervous system to the autonomic nervous system (general)
 Know the parts and functions of a neuron
o Cell body (soma); dendrites; axon; axon hillock; myelin sheath; nodes of ranvier; axon terminals
B. Neurophysiology
 Know the resting membrane potential of a cell membrane
 Know the charges on the inside and outside of a cell membrane (sodium and potassium ion concentration
levels and effects on charges)
 Understand how depolarization of a cell membrane takes place (relate to ion movement)
o Distinguish between depolarization, polarization and repolarization
 Distinguish between a graded potential and an action potential
 Know the 2 types of tissue that can achieve an action potential
 Know the significance of threshold levels concerning an action potential
 Know how axon diameter and degree of myelination affect conduction velocities of nerve impulses
 Know the functions and effects(excitatory or inhibitory); effector organs they influence and characteristics
of each of the following neurotransmitters:
o Acetylcholine
C. Central Nervous System
 Know the two major parts of CNS
 Know that the neural plate is formed from the ectoderm
 Know that the neural tube develops from the neural plate around 3-4 weeks during development; know that
the brain forms anteriorly and the spinal cord posteriorly.
 Know the 5 lobes of the brain and their locations
 Know the major brain regions
o Cerebrum and Cerebral Cortex
o Brain Stem
o Diencephalon (Thalamus; hypothalamus and epithalamus)
 Know the various sulci and fissures that divide the brain lobes
o Central sulcus; lateral fissure; longitudinal fissure; transverse fissure
 Know the function and locations of the ventricles of the brain
o Lateral; 3rd and 4th ventricles
o Functions of the median and lateral apertures
o Function of the cerebral aqueduct and interventriclular foramen
 Know the general characteristics of the cerebral cortex
 Distinguish between gray and white matter in the cerebrum and cerebral cortex
 Know the general function of the basal nuclei region of the brain
 Diencephalon
o Thalamus
 Know the significance of interthalamic adhesion or intermediate mass
 Know the general function of the thalamus
o Hypothalamus
 Know the relationship to the pituitary gland
 Know the general functions of the hypothalamus
o Know the functions of the pineal gland
 Know the general functions and locations of the following parts of the brain stem
o Midbrain, pons and medulla
 Know what the term decussation of the pyramids refers to; occurs in the medulla oblongata
 Know the functions of the cerebellar peduncles associated with the midbrain, pons and medulla
 The Cerebellum
o Know the general characteristics and functions of the cerebellum
o Arbor vitae
o Vermis and folia
o Role in working with the cerebral cortex in coordinating muscular movements
 Know the general characteristics and function of the limbic system and reticular formation
 Know the general characteristics of the three meninges
o Dura mater; pia mater and arachnoid mater
 Know that cerebral spinal fluid is produced by the choroid plexus
o Know the general contents of CSF
o Know the general functions of CSF
 Know the location, and significance of the following parts of the spinal cord below
o All spinal nerves (cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral)
o Cauda equina
o Conus medullaris
o Filum terminale
 Spinal cord cross section
o Know the horns of gray
Know which neurons enter and leave the horns (example somatic sensory and visceral
neurons enter and synapse in the posterior or dorsal horn, etc.)
 Posterior, anterior and lateral horns
o Central canal
o Dorsal root ganglia
 White Matter of the spinal cord
o Ascending Tracts
 Know that the ascending tracts are made of sensory neurons and axons
o Descending Fiber Tracts
 Originate from the pyramidal neurons or cells in the motor cortex area
 Cross over in the medulla oblongata – relate to contralateral control
 You do not have to know the names of specific tracts or their functions
 Disorders – know the causes and general characteristics of the following
o Poliomyelitis- be sure to relate to the phrenic nerve in the cervical plexus
o Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
D. Peripheral Nervous System
 Know the following parts of a PNS nerve
o Epineurium; fascicle and perineurium; nerve fiber and endoneurium
 Distinguish between a sensory and motor neuron; know what a mixed nerve is
 Know the names of the 12 cranial nerves and their general functions
o Example: CN II optic/sensory in function; afferent impulses for vision via optic tracts
 Know the total number of pairs of spinal nerves
 Know that a spinal nerve is short; the combination of the dorsal and ventral nerve roots
 Know that all spinal nerves are mixed
 Know how a nerve plexus is formed
o Ventral rami only
o Know that the dorsal rami only innervate the posterior back area of the body
o Know the function of the meningeal branch
 Know the advantages of a nerve plexus
 For each plexus- know the spinal roots (C1-C4,etc), location and any of the following
o Cervical
 Most branches are cutaneous
 Phrenic nerve
 Nerve root numbers
o Brachial
 Location
 Nerve roots numbers
 Most complex plexus
o Lumbar
 Location and roots
o Sacral
 Sciatic nerve
 Location and roots
 Know the general components of a reflex arc
 Know the difference between an intrinsic and learned reflex
E. Autonomic Nervous System
 Know that the ANS is composed of only motor neurons
o Compare the parasympathetic pre and postganglionic neurons
 Compare and contrast the sympathetic and parasympathetic division (general characteristics)
 Relate the term duel innervation to the ANS
o Know that these divisions serve smooth muscle visceral organs and glands
o Know examples
 Know the two regions from which the nerves originate in the parasympathetic system
 Parasympathetic division
General role
Know the 4 CN involved
Know that the ganglia are close to the effector organs
Know that the cell bodies of the preganglionic neurons are found in the spinal cord (lateral horns)
and the postsynaptic neurons are found in the ganglia.
 Sympathetic division
o Originates from T1-L2
o Preganglionic neurons synapse in the sympathetic chain ganglia or trunk ganglia
o Know the general role of this division
 For the following organs or glands know the parasympathetic and sympathetic response
o Eye-iris; lacrimal and salivary glands; sweat glands; heart and heart muscle; lungs; adipose
V. Special Senses
A. Olfaction
 Know the location and structure of olfactory receptors
o Olfactory epithelium; through the cribiform plate; formation of olfactory tracts and bulb
B. Gustation- Taste
 Distinguish between the following taste buds
o Fungiform papillae; circumvallate papillae
 Know the following
o Role of the gustatory hair cells; basal cells; taste pore; CN I
C. The Eye
 Know the pathway of light through the eyes
 Fibrous layer or tunic
o Know the general functions and structure of the sclera and cornea
 Vascular tunic
o Know the characteristics of the choroid layer
o Know that the ciliary body is composed of smooth muscle; the ciliary processes produce fluid for
the anterior eye; know the function of the suspensory ligaments
 Inner layer or tunic
o Distinguish between the pigmented layer and the retina
o Know the functions of the rods and cones
o Know the significance of the macula lutea and fovea centralis
o Know that the optic nerves are formed from the ganglion cells
o Know that the optic nerves exit via the optic disc and cross at the optic chiasma and then become
the optic tracts
 Lens
o Change of shape
o Main refractive part of the eye
 Know that the cones have three types of pigments; rods only one
D. Hearing
 Know the parts of the ear
Final Exam – General Information
Number of Questions
Type of Questions
Objective: Multiple
Choice and Matching;
Time Allowed
Time of Exam
What to Bring to the
Percentage of your
Final Average
2.0 hours
December 10
8:00 or 10:00 Check
your class schedule
#2 Pencil
Suggestions on how to study for the Exam:
1. Go through the list identify objectives and identify the objectives you feel confident of and ones you need to go
back and study.
2. Remember: Concentrate on the ‘big picture’! Be able to answer general or broad topic questions.
3. Use your book and notes to review topics.