Third year I Semester
(VAE 311: 1+1)
Sociology: Concepts of Sociology and Rural Sociology in Animal Husbandry Extension. Man
- Animal Relationship (Society, Community, Association and Institutions);
Social Groups - types and functions, Social Institutions, Social Change and Factors Influencing
Social Change, Social Organizations, Ecological Entities and Collectivities. Differences between
Rural/Tribal and Urban Communities
Important Social Psychology Concepts in Animal Husbandry Extension.
Role of Animals in Economy of Livestock Owners and National Economy.
Leadership and Role of Leaders in Animal Husbandry Extension
Panchayati Raj: Structure and Functions of Three Tier System of Democratic Decentralization.
Gender and Livestock Development: Concept of Gender, Role of Women in Livestock
Rearing, Concept of WSHG and Women Empowerment through Livestock Rearing.
Concept of Development: – Paradigm of Development, Role of Livestock Extension in
Economic, Human, Political, Social, and Sustainable Development.
Concept of Poverty: Below Poverty Line (BPL), Human Development Index (HDI) and
National Goals.
Dynamics of Change: Processes of Change, Extension in the Context of WTO, Private and
Corporate Extension Services, Public-Private Partnerships in Animal Husbandry Extension.
Dynamics of Development: Development Processes, Approaches and Strategies, Social and
Cultural Dynamics of Development.
Problems and Issues in Development: Basic Issues in Development (Population, Poverty,
Inequality, Unemployment); Issues in Livestock Development; Social issues in Development
(Education, Health, Gender).
Social Ssurvey and its types (Socio economic status of livestock owners)
Use of sampling techniques in AH extension studies
Data collection methods: Observation, interview and questionnaire methods
Techniques of Rapid Rural appraisal in identifying constraints and PRA in identifying solutions
in livestock production/ health care practices
Identification of key communicators through Sociometry
Use of local leaders in planning extension programmes
Differences in livestock production practices of Rural/ Tribal and Urban communities
Third year II semester
(VAE 321: 1 +1)
Concept of Education, Extension Education: Meaning and Principles, Evolution of Veterinary
and Animal Husbandry Extension in India, Community Development.
Teaching - Learning Process, Steps in Extension Teaching. Extension Teaching Methods and
Audio- Visual Aids - their Classification and Use. Application of ICT tools in AH Extension –
Mobiles, Kiosk, Internet. Information on AH related web directories.
Communication in Animal Husbandry Extension – Meaning, Scope, Functions, Process and
Models. Adoption and Diffusion of Livestock Innovations / Practices.
Farming System: Types of Farming System in India – Large and Small Scale Farming, Mixed
Farming, Co-Operative and Collective Farming, Contract Farming, Subsistence and Commercial
Farming, Specialized and Diversified Farming.
Economic Principles of Cooperatives and Anand Pattern of Milk Cooperative Societies
Programme Planning and Evaluation, Feedback Evaluation of Extension Programmes
Major AH development programmes: past – KVS, ICDP, OF, IRDP; Current programmesGoshala, NPCBB, KVK, TTC, ATMA, ATIC, RKVY, MGNREGA, National Dairy Plan;
ICAR/SVVU institutions – Names and Locations.
Classification of teaching methods and audio visual aids
Principles and hands on experience in use of Over Head and Multimedia projectors.
Use of various visual aids, literature and electronic media in AH Extension
Preparation and use of visual aids like Circular letters, Leaflets, Pamphlets, Posters and Folders
Identification of constraints in the adoption of improved Animal Husbandry Practices..
Group discussion on any chosen topic based on the survey conducted - problem tree
Organization of campaigns with the involvement of students in all stages.
Identifying difficulties in the way of organizing Animal Husbandry Extension programmes.
Exposure visits to livestock shows, exhibitions organized by various organizations
Fourth year I semester
(VAE 411: 2 +1)
Economics: Introduction, definition and scope (production, consumption, exchange and
distribution) of economic principles as applied to livestock. Common terms - wants, goods,
wealth, utility, price, value, real and money income. Important features of land, labour, capital
and organization.
Livestock contribution to national economy. Demand projections of livestock produce. Theory of
consumer behavior, law of diminishing marginal utility and indifference curve analysis. Theory
of demand; meaning, types of demand, demand curve and law of demand, individual and market
demand, elasticities of demand and factors affecting demand. Laws and types of supply.
Elasticity of supply. Theory of production, law of diminishing returns, laws of returns to scale
and concept of short and long run periods. Economics of animal disease and disease losses.
Management: Concept of management, Process of management, Organisation, Factors of
production, Human Resource/ Personnel Management, Job specialization, Improving labour
efficiency, Organizational aspects of livestock farms. Concept of Production management.
Marketing: Concept of market; meaning and classification of markets. Market price and normal
price, price determination under perfect competition in short and long run. Marketing of
livestock products. Merchandising - product planning and development, Marketing functions:
Physical functions- grading, transportation, storage and warehousing. Facilitative functions standardization, risk bearing, market information and market intelligence. Market opportunities marketing channels of livestock and livestock products, organized/unorganized markets and
cattle fairs. Import and export of animal and animal products. International
Agreements/Regulations (WTO and General Agreement on Trade and Tariff-GATT) for
marketing/trade of live animals and products.
Accounting: Definition, objectives, common terms. Different systems of book keeping- single
and double entry system. Various types of account books including books of original entry.
Classification of fixed and variable resources and costs, methods of Depreciation
Economics of dairy farm, Economics of goat /sheep unit, Economics of layer/ broiler unit,
Economics of a piggery unit.
Break even analysis- dairy and poultry units
Classification of accounts and rules of debit and credit recording of business transactions. Book
keeping; Journal entry, ledger posting, recording in subsidiary books (cash book, purchase book,
sales book, purchase return book, sales return book), trading account, profit and loss accounts,
Balance sheet. Financial analysis.
Visit to" livestock farms, markets and cattle fairs
Fourth year II semester
(VAE 421: 1 +1)
Concept of enterprise and entrepreneurship. Concepts and theories of self - employment and
entrepreneurship. Types of entrepreneurs, Avenues of Livestock Entrepreneurship /employment
in private and public sectors.
Essential criteria for development of entrepreneurship in livestock sector-basic requirements for
entrepreneurship initiatives in livestock and allied sectors ( i.e., techno-economic feasibility of
the enterprises under different conditions) Management skills ( technical, human resource and
conceptual skills), business acumen, Organisational communication – importance, types and
Entrepreneurial training/ development programmes at the state and national level, animal
insurance, bank support for Entrepreneurship, Financial management – general principles and
practices, Preparation of projects, financial analysis of projects – payback period, return on
investment, Internal rate of return
Bank support for entrepreneurship - banking requirements , Preparation of projects for bank
finance, Assessing projects. Materials management – procurement of inputs, Retail marketing,
sales operations, sales promotion of products and services.
Visit to different enterprises in relation livestock production ( commercial dairy, poultry, goat/
sheep; diary and meat processing units; feed mixing units
Preparation of entrepreneurial project
Preparation of techno-economic feasibility report
Preparing projects for bank appraisal
Financial analysis banking requirements