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NCEA Level 1 Biology (90168) 2010 — page 1 of 4
Assessment Schedule – 2010
Biology: Describe biological ideas relating to how humans use and are affected by micro-organisms (90168)
Evidence Statement
Question One: Decomposers
N0
No response OR
response does not
relate to the
question.
N1
Describes ONE
idea at the
Achievement
level.
N2
Describes TWO
ideas at the
Achievement
level.
A3
A4
M5
M6
E7
E8
Describes
THREE ideas at
the Achievement
level.
Describes FOUR
ideas at the
Achievement
level.
Explains how
nutrients are
released OR how
nutrients are
cycled.
Explains how
nutrients are
released AND
how nutrients are
cycled.
Discussion links
extra-cellular
digestion to
availability of
nutrients.
Discussion links extracellular digestion to
the cycling of
nutrients to other
organisms.
Examples of evidence for explained answers may include:
What extra-cellular digestion is and how it occurs, eg hyphae
grow down into food substrate and secrete enzymes that break
up complex (large) molecules into smaller molecules. These
can then be reabsorbed by the hyphae.
OR
This type of digestion is refered to as extra-cellular digestion
because it occurs outside the body.
OR
Detailed sequenced diagram including labels and supporting
information.
OR
How nutrients are cycled, eg breaks down food substrate into
nutrients that can be absorbed / used by other organisms or into
the air or soil.
OR
Fungi excrete nutrients that can be used by other organisms.
OR
Carbon dioxide is released by fungi during respiration.
Eg without
decomposition, nutrients
would be locked up and
not available to other
organisms.
OR
Fungi excrete nutrients
that can be used by other
organisms and passed
through the food chain.
OR
Carbon dioxide is
released by fungi during
respiration, this can be
used by plants in
photosynthesis.
OR
Transform nitrogen
compounds to
ammonium and then
nitrate.
OR
Legume plants are able
to generate their own
food after absorbing
through roots.
Examples of evidence for described answers may include:
Hyphae – thin threads that grow into food substrate.
OR
Sporangium produces and holds spores.
OR
Spores produced by sporangium and are involved in reproduction. Genetically identical to the parent.
OR
Appropriate diagram labelled. (Note: diagram or description, not both.)
OR
Method of decomposition, eg extra-cellular digestion.
OR
Fungi feed by secreting enzymes into their food.
OR
Fungi are Saprophytes they feed and live on dead matter.
OR
Fungi need warm and moist conditions to decompose matter.
OR
Nutrient Cycles, eg fungi release nutrients from food / substrate.
OR
Fungi release CO2.
NOTE: NOT just Nitrogen and Carbon as information given in the question.
NCEA Level 1 Biology (90168) 2010 — page 2 of 4
Question Two: Culturing Micro-organisms
N0
No response OR
response does not
relate to the
question.
N1
Describes ONE
idea at the
Achievement
level.
N2
Describes TWO
ideas at the
Achievement
level.
A3
Describes THREE
ideas at the
Achievement
level.
A4
Describes FOUR
ideas at the
Achievement
level.
M5
M6
E7
E8
Explains why
material used
needs to be sterile
OR explains why
a control is used.
Explains why
material used
needs to be sterile
AND explains
why a control is
used.
Discusses how
EITHER sterile
conditions OR
the use of a
control ensures
results are
reliable and valid.
Discusses how
sterile conditions
AND the use of a
control ensure
results are reliable
and valid by
linking back to
patient (the swab
taken)
a. Examples of evidence for described answers may include:
NOTE: this needs to be a step not a description of the equipment or material.
c. Examples of evidence for explained
answers may include:
Step NOT to be ‘swab taken’ as given in question.
 Sterilise item to use to transfer microorganism.
 Inoculation – microbes from swab are wiped onto agar.
 Replace lid securely to reduce risks.
 Incubate – store in ideal conditions warm and moist.
 Store plate upside down to keep condensation off agar.
Reasons for sterilisation.
To ensure no contamination of agar from
other microbes occurs.
OR
To ensure confidence that anything that
grew on the agar came from the swab,
nowhere else.
OR
Material is sterilised to treat or kill any
microbes that may be on agar.
b. Evidence for described answers may include:
Need BOTH Bacteria AND Fungi.
Examples of evidence may have included:
 Identified the difference by labelling the diagram
 Bacteria appear as shiny, greasy colonies (not slimy or just spots).
 Fungi appear as largish fuzzy patches.
Reasons for control.
Controls are used to compare results to
ensure agar was not contaminated before the
swab was inoculated.
OR
A control is an agar plate that you do not
inoculate with the swab; it stays the same,
but is incubated with the other cultured
plates.
OR
A control is ued to prove that strilisation has
been affective.
c. Examples of evidence for discuss
answers may include:
 Link back to patient results e.g. so
that the microorgainsims that
grow / is cultured is the one that
is present in the patients throat
 Could link to identification of the
organism from the patients throat
 Could link to the treatment the
patient will receive because of the
results e.g. antibiotics
 Could link specifically to the
growing of micro-organisms from
the swab taken
 Link between proof of
sterilisation and the use of a
control
NCEA Level 1 Biology (90168) 2010 — page 3 of 4
Question Three: Life Processes
N0
No response OR
response does not
relate to the
question.
N1
Describes ONE
idea at the
Achievement
level for BOTH
Bacteria AND
Virus.
N2
Describes TWO
ideas at the
Achievement
level for BOTH
Bacteria AND
Virus.
A3
A4
M5
M6
Describes THREE
ideas at the
Achievement
level for BOTH
Bacteria AND
Virus.
Describes THREE
ideas for Viruses
and FOUR ideas
for Bacteria at the
Achievement
level.
Explains a feature
of bacteria OR
explains a feature
of viruses.
Explains a feature
of BOTH bacteria
and viruses.
Examples of evidence for described answers may include:
(Evidence may come from appropriate labelled diagrams Note: diagram or description not both)
Similarity – Both bacteria and viruses have genetic material (DNA)
Bacteria
Structure – genetic material, flagella, cytoplasm, capsule. Size, shape (cocci, rod, sphere)
Reproduction – binary fission / asexual / produce 2 identical daughter cells every 20 minutes.
Feeding – extra-cellular digestion.
OR
Releases enzymes into food and then reabsorbs nutrients.
Respiration – aerobic or anaerobic (with or without oxygen).
Mode of life – parasitic and saprophytic.
Conditions – requires warmth, moisture and nutrients (may describe limiting factors).
Movement – have a flagella they use to move with.
Size – larger than viruses, more complex.
Viruses
Structure – protein coat, genetic material. Size – small or simple
Reproduction – replication.
OR
Requires a host cell.
Feeding – does not feed. OR Receives nutrients from host cell.
Respiration – does not respire / need energy, receives it from host cell.
Conditions – requires a host cell.
Mode of life – Parasitic – host cell always dies.
Other – requires host cell to carry out any processes / uses host cell resources/ metabolism
OR Antibiotic not affective OR Vacinations provent viruses from being able to attach to the cell wall and
reproduce OR Viruses evolve quickly.
E7
Discussion
compares and
contrasts both
bacteria and
viruses.
E8
Discussion
compares and
contrasts both
bacteria and
viruses AND links
back to the
statement “Bacteria
are living cells,
viruses are not.”
Examples of evidence for explain answers may include:
Structure
Viruses and bacteria have very different structures. Viruses are a lot smaller than bacteria and
do not have as many cellular structures as they do not carry out cell processes independently
from a host cell.
Reproduction
Bacteria reproduce by binary fission, a form of asexual reproduction that produces two
identical daughter cells every 20 minutes.
Viruses reproduce by replication. The process requires a living host cell. It inserts its DNA
into the host and gets the host to produce / assemble thousands of identical viruses, which are
then able to infect other host cells. Without a host cell viruses cannot reproduce.
Feeding
Bacteria use a form of extra-cellular digestion to receive nutrition. They secrete enzymes and
then reabsorb nutrients once digested. Viruses do not need to digest food, absorb nutrients,
they receive all resources including energy from the host cell.
Conditions
Bacteria require warm, moist conditions with the availability of nutrients to reproduce and
survive compared to viruses, which require a host cell to carry out cellular functions in order
to survive.
May also include discussion about limiting factors (increase waste, decrease space etc)
Antibiotics are effective against bacteria because they have a cell wall and they interfere with
the functioning of the cell wall. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses as they do not
have a cell wall.
NCEA Level 1 Biology (90168) 2010 — page 4 of 4
Judgement Statement
Score range
Not Achieved
Achievement
Achievement
with Merit
Achievement
with Excellence
0–6
7 – 13
14 – 18
19 – 24
Note: these score ranges are specific to this standard for 2010.
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