NCEA Level 1 Biology (90168) 2010 — page 1 of 4 Assessment Schedule – 2010 Biology: Describe biological ideas relating to how humans use and are affected by micro-organisms (90168) Evidence Statement Question One: Decomposers N0 No response OR response does not relate to the question. N1 Describes ONE idea at the Achievement level. N2 Describes TWO ideas at the Achievement level. A3 A4 M5 M6 E7 E8 Describes THREE ideas at the Achievement level. Describes FOUR ideas at the Achievement level. Explains how nutrients are released OR how nutrients are cycled. Explains how nutrients are released AND how nutrients are cycled. Discussion links extra-cellular digestion to availability of nutrients. Discussion links extracellular digestion to the cycling of nutrients to other organisms. Examples of evidence for explained answers may include: What extra-cellular digestion is and how it occurs, eg hyphae grow down into food substrate and secrete enzymes that break up complex (large) molecules into smaller molecules. These can then be reabsorbed by the hyphae. OR This type of digestion is refered to as extra-cellular digestion because it occurs outside the body. OR Detailed sequenced diagram including labels and supporting information. OR How nutrients are cycled, eg breaks down food substrate into nutrients that can be absorbed / used by other organisms or into the air or soil. OR Fungi excrete nutrients that can be used by other organisms. OR Carbon dioxide is released by fungi during respiration. Eg without decomposition, nutrients would be locked up and not available to other organisms. OR Fungi excrete nutrients that can be used by other organisms and passed through the food chain. OR Carbon dioxide is released by fungi during respiration, this can be used by plants in photosynthesis. OR Transform nitrogen compounds to ammonium and then nitrate. OR Legume plants are able to generate their own food after absorbing through roots. Examples of evidence for described answers may include: Hyphae – thin threads that grow into food substrate. OR Sporangium produces and holds spores. OR Spores produced by sporangium and are involved in reproduction. Genetically identical to the parent. OR Appropriate diagram labelled. (Note: diagram or description, not both.) OR Method of decomposition, eg extra-cellular digestion. OR Fungi feed by secreting enzymes into their food. OR Fungi are Saprophytes they feed and live on dead matter. OR Fungi need warm and moist conditions to decompose matter. OR Nutrient Cycles, eg fungi release nutrients from food / substrate. OR Fungi release CO2. NOTE: NOT just Nitrogen and Carbon as information given in the question. NCEA Level 1 Biology (90168) 2010 — page 2 of 4 Question Two: Culturing Micro-organisms N0 No response OR response does not relate to the question. N1 Describes ONE idea at the Achievement level. N2 Describes TWO ideas at the Achievement level. A3 Describes THREE ideas at the Achievement level. A4 Describes FOUR ideas at the Achievement level. M5 M6 E7 E8 Explains why material used needs to be sterile OR explains why a control is used. Explains why material used needs to be sterile AND explains why a control is used. Discusses how EITHER sterile conditions OR the use of a control ensures results are reliable and valid. Discusses how sterile conditions AND the use of a control ensure results are reliable and valid by linking back to patient (the swab taken) a. Examples of evidence for described answers may include: NOTE: this needs to be a step not a description of the equipment or material. c. Examples of evidence for explained answers may include: Step NOT to be ‘swab taken’ as given in question. Sterilise item to use to transfer microorganism. Inoculation – microbes from swab are wiped onto agar. Replace lid securely to reduce risks. Incubate – store in ideal conditions warm and moist. Store plate upside down to keep condensation off agar. Reasons for sterilisation. To ensure no contamination of agar from other microbes occurs. OR To ensure confidence that anything that grew on the agar came from the swab, nowhere else. OR Material is sterilised to treat or kill any microbes that may be on agar. b. Evidence for described answers may include: Need BOTH Bacteria AND Fungi. Examples of evidence may have included: Identified the difference by labelling the diagram Bacteria appear as shiny, greasy colonies (not slimy or just spots). Fungi appear as largish fuzzy patches. Reasons for control. Controls are used to compare results to ensure agar was not contaminated before the swab was inoculated. OR A control is an agar plate that you do not inoculate with the swab; it stays the same, but is incubated with the other cultured plates. OR A control is ued to prove that strilisation has been affective. c. Examples of evidence for discuss answers may include: Link back to patient results e.g. so that the microorgainsims that grow / is cultured is the one that is present in the patients throat Could link to identification of the organism from the patients throat Could link to the treatment the patient will receive because of the results e.g. antibiotics Could link specifically to the growing of micro-organisms from the swab taken Link between proof of sterilisation and the use of a control NCEA Level 1 Biology (90168) 2010 — page 3 of 4 Question Three: Life Processes N0 No response OR response does not relate to the question. N1 Describes ONE idea at the Achievement level for BOTH Bacteria AND Virus. N2 Describes TWO ideas at the Achievement level for BOTH Bacteria AND Virus. A3 A4 M5 M6 Describes THREE ideas at the Achievement level for BOTH Bacteria AND Virus. Describes THREE ideas for Viruses and FOUR ideas for Bacteria at the Achievement level. Explains a feature of bacteria OR explains a feature of viruses. Explains a feature of BOTH bacteria and viruses. Examples of evidence for described answers may include: (Evidence may come from appropriate labelled diagrams Note: diagram or description not both) Similarity – Both bacteria and viruses have genetic material (DNA) Bacteria Structure – genetic material, flagella, cytoplasm, capsule. Size, shape (cocci, rod, sphere) Reproduction – binary fission / asexual / produce 2 identical daughter cells every 20 minutes. Feeding – extra-cellular digestion. OR Releases enzymes into food and then reabsorbs nutrients. Respiration – aerobic or anaerobic (with or without oxygen). Mode of life – parasitic and saprophytic. Conditions – requires warmth, moisture and nutrients (may describe limiting factors). Movement – have a flagella they use to move with. Size – larger than viruses, more complex. Viruses Structure – protein coat, genetic material. Size – small or simple Reproduction – replication. OR Requires a host cell. Feeding – does not feed. OR Receives nutrients from host cell. Respiration – does not respire / need energy, receives it from host cell. Conditions – requires a host cell. Mode of life – Parasitic – host cell always dies. Other – requires host cell to carry out any processes / uses host cell resources/ metabolism OR Antibiotic not affective OR Vacinations provent viruses from being able to attach to the cell wall and reproduce OR Viruses evolve quickly. E7 Discussion compares and contrasts both bacteria and viruses. E8 Discussion compares and contrasts both bacteria and viruses AND links back to the statement “Bacteria are living cells, viruses are not.” Examples of evidence for explain answers may include: Structure Viruses and bacteria have very different structures. Viruses are a lot smaller than bacteria and do not have as many cellular structures as they do not carry out cell processes independently from a host cell. Reproduction Bacteria reproduce by binary fission, a form of asexual reproduction that produces two identical daughter cells every 20 minutes. Viruses reproduce by replication. The process requires a living host cell. It inserts its DNA into the host and gets the host to produce / assemble thousands of identical viruses, which are then able to infect other host cells. Without a host cell viruses cannot reproduce. Feeding Bacteria use a form of extra-cellular digestion to receive nutrition. They secrete enzymes and then reabsorb nutrients once digested. Viruses do not need to digest food, absorb nutrients, they receive all resources including energy from the host cell. Conditions Bacteria require warm, moist conditions with the availability of nutrients to reproduce and survive compared to viruses, which require a host cell to carry out cellular functions in order to survive. May also include discussion about limiting factors (increase waste, decrease space etc) Antibiotics are effective against bacteria because they have a cell wall and they interfere with the functioning of the cell wall. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses as they do not have a cell wall. NCEA Level 1 Biology (90168) 2010 — page 4 of 4 Judgement Statement Score range Not Achieved Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with Excellence 0–6 7 – 13 14 – 18 19 – 24 Note: these score ranges are specific to this standard for 2010.