E-Dairy News and Views - Iowa State University Extension and

E-Dairy News and Views
In This Edition
Herd in the Barn
Protect Youngstock during
Cold Temperatures
Iowa Water Quality
January Events
Additional Information
January 2014
Visit Online | ISU Extension and Outreach | ISU
Herd in the Barn
Resources for Manure Management on Small Dairy
Farms with Outside Pens and Lots
ISU Extension and
Outreach Dairy
Field Specialists
Angie Rieck-Hinz, Extension Program Specialist
Jenn Bentley (NE)
Dan Huyser, Extension Ag Engineer
Manure management on small dairies is just as
important as manure management on large
dairies. For the purpose of this newsletter
article, we will focus on dairies where animals
will have access to yards, lots or pens outside
(or are not completely housed under a roof at
all times). A small dairy will be defined as any
dairy operation with less than 1,000 animal
units which is equivalent to less than 1,000
head of immature dairy or less than 700 head
of mature dairy cattle. A mature dairy animal
is loosely defined as one that has had its first
calf and includes both milked and dry cows.
And while it's not possible to cover all of the
regulations that affect dairies of any size in a
short newsletter article, the goal here is to help
you access resources to be better informed and
provide solutions for manure management
Resources for Manure Management on
Small Dairy Farms with Outside Pens
Larry Tranel
Kevin Lager (NW)
ISU State Dairy
Extension and
Dr. Lee Kilmer, 515294-4641,
Dr. Leo Timms, 515294-4522,
Dr. Jan. Shearer,
and Lots
Protect your Youngstock during Cold Temperatures
Excerpt from Amy Stanton, Assistant Professor, University of
Wisconsin, Dairy Cattle Well-being Specialist, alstanton@wisc.edu
By the time you read this, temperatures may be on the rise, however
even at 42F, newborns feel the effects of cold weather.
Do not expose newborns to outside temperatures, if not 100% dry.
Calves may be kept in the calving area longer by putting bedding in
a stock tank or blocking off a corner of the calving pen and bedding
it well to minimize risk of exposure to disease pathogens from
cows. When newborns are moved to the nursery area-keep them
warm and out of the wind. They are as vulnerable to cold as a
poorly dressed person in this weather due to their limited body fat
reserves, large surface area and minimal hair coat. Transport them
in a box, trailer, or covered device with bedding. Do not move in
open transport such as in bucket or wheel barrow without bedding
and at least a calf blanket. Below 42F they are spending energy to
maintain body temperatures and are vulnerable to frost bite,
hypothermia, and starvation.
Milk-fed Calves:
At -13F a 100 lb calf needs 1.59 lbs of dry matter from milk (~7
quarts of whole milk) JUST for maintenance and a 200 lb calf needs
2.7 lbs of dry matter (~10 quarts of whole milk) just for
maintenance. This does not take into account the wind chill and
does not apply to calves that are even slightly damp. This means
that calves CAN NOT get enough energy from 4 or even 6 quarts of
milk per day in this weather.
For calves to maximize the use of their energy in this weather
ensure they are dry, have enough bedding to at least partially cover
their back legs and calf blankets should be considered. Any sick
calf should have a blanket in this weather as they are especially
vulnerable to the cold. Keep in mind that calves spend
approximately 16 hours a day laying down. Make sure they have a
warm surface to do this. Ears are particularly vulnerable at this time
so make sure that calves can not suck on each others body parts as it
can lead to frost bitten ears.
Do not wean calves during extreme cold weather-this will be very
stressful for these animals and leave them vulnerable to illness and
weight loss.
Replacement Heifers:
Heifer energy needs greatly increase in this weather. Compared to
32F (5mph wind) maintenance requirements can roughly double for
most animals.
Example 1) A 600 lb Holstein heifer-not pregnant.
At -13 F, with no shelter from the wind a 600 lb calf's energy
demands could increase between 2-3 times depending on coat
condition and wind speed compared to a day when the temperature
is 32F with 5mph wind.
% Increase in
Coat maintenance energy
Speed condition demands compared
to 32F and 5
-13 F
-13 F
-13 F
Example 2) The energy demands of an 18 month old 926 lbs
Holstein heifer at 90 days pregnant at -13 F compared to energy
demands at 32 F.
Energy demands could range from 1.2 to 2.4 times greater
compared to their maintenance requirements on a day at 32F with 5
mph winds.
% Increase in energy
demands compared to 32F
and 5mph
Iowa Water Quality Initiative
Check out a new website that will serve as a resource to help Iowans
protect and improve water quality. www.CleanWaterIowa.org
“Iowans can take steps to help improve Iowa’s water quality and this
site serves as a one-stop-shop for conservation practices we can all use,
whether it is on the farm, at a business or by a homeowner,” said
The site has “Farm,” “Residential & Urban,” and “City & Industry”
sections that provide information about science-based practices that can
be implemented to improve water quality. The site includes
descriptions of water quality practices that can be utilized, benefits of
the practices, and links to additional information.
Success stories, information on upcoming events and education
materials will also be available on the site. Iowans are also invited to
share their water quality success stories as well. In addition to the
website, Iowans can follow @CleanWaterIowa on Twitter or “like” the
page on Facebook to receive updates and other information about the
ongoing Iowa water quality initiative.
Upcoming Events/Information
I-29 Dairy Conference
January 15-16, Best Western Ramkota Inn and Conference
Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota
For more information visit:
2014 NE Iowa Dairy Days
Iowa dairy producers will have the opportunity to hear Iowa
State University Extension Specialists share information on
emerging dairy industry issues at the 2014 ISU Extension
Dairy Days scheduled at seven eastern Iowa locations in JanFeb. Brochure
2014 Northwest Iowa Dairy Days
Feb. 25 - Forster Community Center, Rock Rapids
Feb. 26 - Sioux County Extension Office, Orange City
For more information contact Kevin Lager at 712-737-4230 or
2014 On-Farm Calf Feeding Workshops
With costs of raising heifers higher than their current market
value if sold, precision management is needed as there are
many ways to add value to these heifers before they join the
milking string. On-farm calf workshops will allow a firsthand look at how fellow dairy farmers are housing preweaned calves and using technology, especially pasteurizers
and automatic calf feeders to help manage their calf program.
Schedule of Tours
Statewide Farm Management Events
Annie's Project
Evaluating your Estate Plan
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits
discrimination in all its programs and activities on the
basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion,
age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and
marital or family status. (Not all prohibited bases apply
to all programs.) Many materials can be made available
in alternative formats for ADA clients. To file a
complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Office of Civil
Rights, Room 326-W, Whitten Building, 14th and
Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 202509410 or call 202-720-5964.