E-Dairy News and Views In This Edition Herd in the Barn Protect Youngstock during Cold Temperatures Iowa Water Quality Initiative January Events Additional Information January 2014 Visit Online | ISU Extension and Outreach | ISU Herd in the Barn Contact Resources for Manure Management on Small Dairy Farms with Outside Pens and Lots ISU Extension and Outreach Dairy Field Specialists Angie Rieck-Hinz, Extension Program Specialist Jenn Bentley (NE) Dan Huyser, Extension Ag Engineer 563-382-2949, email@example.com u Manure management on small dairies is just as important as manure management on large dairies. For the purpose of this newsletter article, we will focus on dairies where animals will have access to yards, lots or pens outside (or are not completely housed under a roof at all times). A small dairy will be defined as any dairy operation with less than 1,000 animal units which is equivalent to less than 1,000 head of immature dairy or less than 700 head of mature dairy cattle. A mature dairy animal is loosely defined as one that has had its first calf and includes both milked and dry cows. And while it's not possible to cover all of the regulations that affect dairies of any size in a short newsletter article, the goal here is to help you access resources to be better informed and provide solutions for manure management issues. Resources for Manure Management on Small Dairy Farms with Outside Pens Larry Tranel (NE/SE) 563-583-6496, firstname.lastname@example.org Kevin Lager (NW) 715-737-4230 email@example.com ISU State Dairy Extension and Outreach Specialists Dr. Lee Kilmer, 515294-4641, firstname.lastname@example.org u Dr. Leo Timms, 515294-4522, email@example.com Dr. Jan. Shearer, and Lots Protect your Youngstock during Cold Temperatures Excerpt from Amy Stanton, Assistant Professor, University of Wisconsin, Dairy Cattle Well-being Specialist, firstname.lastname@example.org By the time you read this, temperatures may be on the rise, however even at 42F, newborns feel the effects of cold weather. Newborns: Do not expose newborns to outside temperatures, if not 100% dry. Calves may be kept in the calving area longer by putting bedding in a stock tank or blocking off a corner of the calving pen and bedding it well to minimize risk of exposure to disease pathogens from cows. When newborns are moved to the nursery area-keep them warm and out of the wind. They are as vulnerable to cold as a poorly dressed person in this weather due to their limited body fat reserves, large surface area and minimal hair coat. Transport them in a box, trailer, or covered device with bedding. Do not move in open transport such as in bucket or wheel barrow without bedding and at least a calf blanket. Below 42F they are spending energy to maintain body temperatures and are vulnerable to frost bite, hypothermia, and starvation. Milk-fed Calves: At -13F a 100 lb calf needs 1.59 lbs of dry matter from milk (~7 quarts of whole milk) JUST for maintenance and a 200 lb calf needs 2.7 lbs of dry matter (~10 quarts of whole milk) just for maintenance. This does not take into account the wind chill and does not apply to calves that are even slightly damp. This means that calves CAN NOT get enough energy from 4 or even 6 quarts of milk per day in this weather. For calves to maximize the use of their energy in this weather ensure they are dry, have enough bedding to at least partially cover their back legs and calf blankets should be considered. Any sick calf should have a blanket in this weather as they are especially vulnerable to the cold. Keep in mind that calves spend approximately 16 hours a day laying down. Make sure they have a warm surface to do this. Ears are particularly vulnerable at this time so make sure that calves can not suck on each others body parts as it can lead to frost bitten ears. Do not wean calves during extreme cold weather-this will be very stressful for these animals and leave them vulnerable to illness and 515-294-3731, email@example.com weight loss. Replacement Heifers: Heifer energy needs greatly increase in this weather. Compared to 32F (5mph wind) maintenance requirements can roughly double for most animals. Example 1) A 600 lb Holstein heifer-not pregnant. At -13 F, with no shelter from the wind a 600 lb calf's energy demands could increase between 2-3 times depending on coat condition and wind speed compared to a day when the temperature is 32F with 5mph wind. % Increase in Wind Coat maintenance energy Temperature Speed condition demands compared to 32F and 5 -13 F 19 Dry 210% -13 F 19 Wet 290% -13 F 3 Dry 180% Example 2) The energy demands of an 18 month old 926 lbs Holstein heifer at 90 days pregnant at -13 F compared to energy demands at 32 F. Energy demands could range from 1.2 to 2.4 times greater compared to their maintenance requirements on a day at 32F with 5 mph winds. Wind Speed 19 19 3 Coat condition Dry Wet Dry % Increase in energy demands compared to 32F and 5mph 180% 240% 120% Iowa Water Quality Initiative Check out a new website that will serve as a resource to help Iowans protect and improve water quality. www.CleanWaterIowa.org “Iowans can take steps to help improve Iowa’s water quality and this site serves as a one-stop-shop for conservation practices we can all use, whether it is on the farm, at a business or by a homeowner,” said Branstad. The site has “Farm,” “Residential & Urban,” and “City & Industry” sections that provide information about science-based practices that can be implemented to improve water quality. The site includes descriptions of water quality practices that can be utilized, benefits of the practices, and links to additional information. Success stories, information on upcoming events and education materials will also be available on the site. Iowans are also invited to share their water quality success stories as well. In addition to the website, Iowans can follow @CleanWaterIowa on Twitter or “like” the page on Facebook to receive updates and other information about the ongoing Iowa water quality initiative. Upcoming Events/Information I-29 Dairy Conference January 15-16, Best Western Ramkota Inn and Conference Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota For more information visit: http://igrow.org/livestock/dairy 2014 NE Iowa Dairy Days Iowa dairy producers will have the opportunity to hear Iowa State University Extension Specialists share information on emerging dairy industry issues at the 2014 ISU Extension Dairy Days scheduled at seven eastern Iowa locations in JanFeb. Brochure 2014 Northwest Iowa Dairy Days Feb. 25 - Forster Community Center, Rock Rapids Feb. 26 - Sioux County Extension Office, Orange City For more information contact Kevin Lager at 712-737-4230 or firstname.lastname@example.org 2014 On-Farm Calf Feeding Workshops With costs of raising heifers higher than their current market value if sold, precision management is needed as there are many ways to add value to these heifers before they join the milking string. On-farm calf workshops will allow a firsthand look at how fellow dairy farmers are housing preweaned calves and using technology, especially pasteurizers and automatic calf feeders to help manage their calf program. Schedule of Tours Statewide Farm Management Events Annie's Project Evaluating your Estate Plan The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or family status. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Many materials can be made available in alternative formats for ADA clients. To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326-W, Whitten Building, 14th and Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 202509410 or call 202-720-5964.