Cellular Biology Furthers Technology The biotechnology revolution has had a dramatic effect on our lives – in ways that may not seem obvious. For example, forensic technology, pharmaceutical production, and food production have all been revolutionized by biotechnology. However, it could be argued that this revolution has not yet run its course. There remain many important and exciting applications of our growing knowledge of cell processes. In this activity, you will use your knowledge of cell processes and research to understand the applications of cell biology and enzyme function to the food, medical, and pharmaceutical industries. Enzyme Applications in Industry In this assignment you will research the application of enzymes in industry. Choose from one of the topics below (or come to your teacher with another idea) and write a one page report on the use of the enzyme to enhance the industry. Topics 1. Enzymes have been used in the dairy industry for years, in particular for the process of making cheese through milk coagulation. 2. A large industrial user of enzymes is the starch processing industry. Enzymes are used to convert starches into glucose syrups. These syrups are used as sweeteners in foods and candy. 3. The dairy industry uses enzymes to breakdown lactose in milk, especially for those who suffer from lactose intolerance. 4. Lipases are also used in making cheese. 5. Production of wine and beer is possible due to the enzymes in yeast and bacteria. 6. Enzymes are now used in the cleaning industry to remove stains. Their action allows clothes with tough stains to be cleaned at lower temperatures. 7. Enzymes have been used in the leather industry for years to soften hides and clean them. 8. The pulp and paper industry uses enzymes to enhance bleaching and “de-ink” pulp. 9. The textile industry uses enzymes in stone washing and the softening of cotton. 10. Enzymes are used in the production of bioethanol. 11. Enzymes are used as meat tenderizers. 12. Enzymes are now used to make drugs and control reaction rates in pharmaceutical reactions. 13. Enzymes are used as pharmaceutical supplements to treat digestive system disorders such as celiac disease and lactose intolerance. 14. Enzymes as food supplements to promote health. 15. Enzymes can be used to promote the development of biodegradable plastics. 16. Enzymes are found in some baby foods to pre-digest them. 17. Fruit juices look so clear because of the enzymes that are used. 18. Contact lens cleaning solutions contain enzymes. 19. Enzymes are used in the production of rubber. 20. In the photography industry, enzymes are used to recycle materials from waste film. Assignment Explain in detail the enzymes involved, the reactions catalyzed, and the improvement in the end product. Discuss why they are being used – more efficient, higher yields, less waste? What was used before enzymes, if anything? Discuss the risks, especially to living systems and to the environment. Discuss the impact of the process on society. The end of your paper should include your opinion or concerns on this bio-application. Important: Use APA format to cite all your research sources properly, including in-text or parenthetical references within paragraphs (author, year) and a works cited list at the end of your paper. Rubric Categories Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 (50 - 59%) (60 - 69%) (70 - 79%) (80 - 100%) Knowledge and Understanding -correctly uses the scientific terminology BC2.01 -demonstrates correct use of scientific terminology with limited success -demonstrates correct use of scientific terminology with some success -demonstrates correct use of scientific terminology with considerable success -demonstrates correct use of scientific terminology with a high degree of success Thinking -demonstrates understanding of the importance of enzymes in relation to the industry SI1.09, BC1.01 -demonstrates understanding of the importance of enzymes in relation to the industry with limited success -demonstrates understanding of the importance of enzymes in relation to the industry with some success -demonstrates understanding of the importance of enzymes in relation to the industry with considerable success -demonstrates understanding of the importance of enzymes in relation to the industry with a high degree of success Application -demonstrates understanding of the importance of enzymes on Canadian society BC1.01 -understanding shows limited insight -understanding shows some insight -understanding shows considerable insight (considers social, economic, health, and/or environmental impacts) -understanding shows a high degree of insight Communication -effectively communicates ideas and uses conventions of writing (reporting) SI1.11 -communicates with limited clarity -communicates with some clarity -communicates with considerable clarity (very few spelling or grammar errors; paper is wellorganized and flows easily and logically; references are cited properly) -communicates with a high degree of clarity Note: A student whose achievement is below Level 1 (50%) has not met the expectations for this assignment or activity.