Questions for GAME Review Chp 10 Agriculture

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Questions for GAME Review – Chp. 10 Agriculture
1.
A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning is called? SWIDDEN
2. The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers is? HORTICULTURE
3. Agricultural Revolution # WHAT includes the Industrial Revolution? #2
4. Agricultural Revolution # WHAT includes the Agricultural Revolution? #1
5. Agricultural Revolution #WHAT is synonymous with the Green Revolution? #3
6. Degradation of land, esp. in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting,
animal grazing, and tree cutting is called what? DESERTIFICATION
7. A method of planting seeds which is reproduced by sexual reproduction like in flowers or fruit is called?
SEED PLANTING
8. Ranchers and farmers are subject to 3 factors when trying to select the type of agriculture crop to raise
in the AP region they reside in are? ECONOMICS, ENVIRONMENT, CULTURE
9. The first agriculturists were called what? HUNTER GATHERERS
10. The Mediterranean Climate produces 2 types of main crops. What are they? OLIVES AND GRAPES
11. The Domestication of animals was extremely successful thousands of years ago in which AP region? SW
ASIA
12. Between what 2 rivers was the domestication of animals thousands of years ago most successful? TIGRIS
and EUPHRATES Rivers
13. Crop rotation is found in what kind of MDC farming? GRAIN
14. Another name for “shifting cultivation” would be? SLASH & BURN
15. Type of agriculture practiced by the largest percentage of the world’s people is? INTENSIVE
SUBSISTENCE
16. What is the most important reason for dividing the world into agriculture regions? WHETHER THE
PRODUCT IS CONSUMED ON OR OFF THE FARM
17. Which type of agriculture occupies the largest % of the world’s land area? SHIFTING CULTIVATION
18. The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures is called? TRANSHUMANCE
19. Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm is called? COMMERCIAL
20. The rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, esp. new high-yield seeds and fertilizers is called what?
GREEN REVOLUTION
21. What does it mean by the WHITE REVOLUTION in India? Producing milk for poor to be able to buy
22. Form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals is called? PASTORAL NOMADISM
23. Wheat planted in the autumn and harvested in the early summer is which kind? WINTER
24. List the 4 types of LDC farming. Intensive subsistence, shifting cultivation, plantation, and pastoral
nomadism
25. In the early 1800s, USA ranchers abided by the open range concept also known as the what? CODE OF
THE WEST?
26. Although this type of LDC farming takes place in LDCs, the real profit and owner belongs to the MDCs.
Which type is this? PLANTATION
27. Most crops in Mediterranean lands are grown for WHAT rather than for animal feed? HUMAN EATING
28. Which LDC farming is found in the tropical regions with an “A” type of climate? SHIFTING
CULTIVATION
29. What are the 2 problems that dairy farmers currently face in the USA? 1. Expensive feed 2. Intensive
labor time
30. Mixed cropping also involves including what other type of farming? LIVESTOCK
31. The first ring surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied is called the what? MILKSHED
32. What is the most widely produced grain crop in the USA? WHEAT
33. Farmers make up what percentage of the USA labor force?
2%
34. There are five principal features that distinguish commercial agriculture from subsistence agriculture.
What are they? 1. Purpose of farming; 2. percentage of farmers in the labor force, 3. use of machinery,
4. farm size,
5. relationship of farming to other businesses
35. The origins of agriculture cannot be documented with certainty because of why? IT BEGAN BEFORE
RECORDED HISTORY
36. Agriculture is caught up in the WHAT/blank of the economy as other industries? GLOBALIZATION
37. What percentage of world farmers are in LDCs? 97%
38. Farmer jobs belong to what type of AP jobs? PRIMARY
39. Which AP region was the hearth for corn, beans, and potatoes? LATIN AMERICA
40. Where did the horse originate as far as AP regions? SW ASIA
41. Where did the turkey originate as far as AP regions? LATIN AMERICA
42. Rice is thought to have been domesticated in what AP region more than 10,000 year ago? EAST ASIA
43. There are only about 350,000 modern day people like the Bushmen and Pila Nguru people? What are they
called in AP language? HUNTERS and GATHERERS
44. There are two major points that make up what the Green Revolution is about. What are they? 1. produces
new strains of plants with higher yields and shifts from subsistence to commercial farming.
45. Name 3 practices of the Green Revolution. 1. irrigation 2. insecticides 3. artificial fertilizer 4.
hybridization 5. disease resistance crops 6. mechanical machinery
46. RENT according to Von Thunen's Model of Agriculture includes 2 considerations. What are they?
1. Which crops to cultivate or which animals to raise based on locations from the market place
2. cost of LAND versus cost of TRANSPORTING products to market
47.
4 questions one must ask in order to decide which RING of von Thunen to plant in: 1. Intensive or
extensive labor 2. Lower land values versus higher land values 3. perishable or not 4. access to the
market city or not
48. According to Thomas Malthus's Model, the food supply increases arithmetically or geometrically?
ARITHMETICALLY
49. Esther Boserup believed that WHAT is a positive force driving agricultural innovations? POPULATION
GROWTH
50. Under Esther Boserup's Stage 5 Agricultural Model, multi-cropping the same plots will bears several crops
a year with little or no WHAT time? Fallow
51. What letter of the alphabet climate would you find shifting cultivation? CLIMATE A
52. Only about 15 million people are nomads, but they sparsely occupy ____% of the earth's land area? 20%
53. To increase crop yields, farmers in South China commonly practice what? DOUBLE CROPPING
54. Asian agriculture is characterized by shortages of all but which of the following? A. equipment B. fund
c. labor or d. land. ANSWER: C. LABOR
55. Pastoral nomadism is predominately practiced in which AP region? SOUTHWEST ASIA
56. What is the leading export crop in the world? WHEAT
57. After corn, the most important crop in the USA mixed crop and livestock region is what? SOYBEANS
58. What is the most common form of commercial agriculture in Europe? MIXED CROP and LIVESTOCK
FARMING
59. In the USA many farms are integrated into a large food production industry called what? AGRIBUSINESS
60. Ranching has declined in the southwestern USA primarily because of what? CROPS YIELD MORE INCOME
PER AREA
61. What is the purpose of crop rotation? MAINTAINING THE FERTILITY OF THE FIELDS
62. The predominant form of agriculture in the US southeast is? COMMERCIAL GARDENING
63. Plantation farming is primarily found where? LDCs
64. What kind of farming means the bartering or the exchange of commodities? TRUCK FARMING
65. Farming varies around the world because of what two factors? CULTURAL and ENVIRONMENTAL
66. The first group to integrate seed agriculture with domestication of herd animals was probably in India,
China, or Ethiopia? CHINA
67. Hunting and gathering societies are found in what kind of places in the world? ISOLATED
68. The cultivation of plants by cutting stems and dividing roots is? VEGETATIVE PLANTING
69. Geographer Derwent Whittlesey divided the world into how many agricultural regions? ELEVEN
70. The decline in the # of farmers can best be described as a consequence of what factors? PUSH AND
PULL FACTORS
71. The system of planting crops on tops of soil clumps is called what? RIDGE TILLING
72. In what ring of von Thunen would you find perishable crops? ONE
73. In what ring of von Thunen would you find GRAINS? three
74. In what ring of von Thunen would you find TIMBER? two
75. In what ring of von Thunen would you find GRAZING? four
76. What is grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals called? PASTURE
77. According to von Thune, timber production was located in the 2nd ring from the city because of what
factor? PRODUCT'S WEIGHT
78. The 2nd Agricultural Revolution is synonymous with what? INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
79. Under the Green Revolution, miracle seeds produced huge crop output. The problem for poor farmers was
what? AFFORDING THE SEEDS
80. The first animal to appear by the sides of neolithic people was? DOG
81. Name two reasons why wheat is a cash crop for farmers? DOESN'T SPOIL or HIGH PRICE or EASY to
TRANSPORT
82. Farmers make up what percentage of the world's population? 5%
83. The Rancher's Code of the West back in the 1860s gave rights for 2 benefits. GRAZE on any land with
cattle and ACCESS to all Water
84. An increasingly popular form of sustainable agriculture is what kind of farming? ORGANIC
85. Critics of von Thunen claim that the land in 1826 was more what than in 2013? MORE UNIFORM
86. In arid climates like Southern California and the Middle East, what can cause the soil to become salty and
infertile? salinization
87. The most important or popular export drug in the world is ? MARIJUANA
88. Name two strategies to increase the food supply. 1. expand the land area used for agriculture 2. increase
the productivity of land now used for agriculture d. identify new food sources e. increase exports from
other countries
89. What is threatening or reducing agricultural lands near cities? URBANIZATION
90. What are some of the new food sources in 2013? a. cultivating oceans b. developing higher protein
cereals c. improving the taste of rarely consumed foods - tofu, sprouts, kelp, kale
91. The three top grain exports are: wheat, corn, rice
92. What are the 3 principal practices of Organic Agriculture?
a.
Sensitive land management (ridge tillage) b. Limited use of chemicals c. integrated crop and
livestock: (do not confine animals, use manure for plants, cattle should eat old crops on fallow land, keep
feed costs down – used mixed crops, make sure cattle move around and leave their manure on resting
land filled with clover – add nutrients to the soil).
93. Green Revolution Practices are: started in India first and spread
a. artificial fertilizer b. irrigation c. insecticides d. mechanical machinery e. using miracle seeds
(GMOs)
f. cross-breeding g. disease resistance crops
94. Why are more people buying organic?
a.
Concerns about nutrition and health
b. Wary of pesticides
c.
USA growing wealthier - can afford organic
d. World recognition that organic is better
e.
Belief: don’t exhaust land – use natural manure
f.
Eat food that has less negative impact on environment
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