Honors Argument Outline Requirements: Typed in Arial or Times New Roman Double spaced Use complete sentences for thesis, topic sentence, and concluding idea Use phrases for other items Must include evidence of research (if for a research paper) Format 1 (Embedded refutation) I. Topic of Paper A. Motivator/Framing Device B. Background C. Concession to other argument for persuasive essays D. Central Claim/Thesis - 1 sentence. Must be debatable, supportable, and significant II. Topic Sentence A. 1st sub-claim - topic sentence that establishes first argument B. Explanation of counter argument C. Transition + Evidence (quotes, specific examples) that refutes the counter argument and illustrates YOUR argument 1. 2. 3. D. Explanation of how the examples support your argument E. Concluding sentence. Connect the point back to the thesis (how does what you’ve just discussed prove your thesis?) III. Topic Sentence (complete sentence with transition) A. 2nd sub-claim - transition with topic sentence that establishes second argument B. Explanation of counter argument C. Transition + Evidence (quotes, specific examples) that refutes the counter argument and illustrates YOUR argument 1. 2. 3. D. Explanation of how the examples support the point E. Concluding sentence. Connect the argument back to the thesis (how does what you’ve just Discussed prove your thesis?) IV. + Follow the same format used in paragraphs II and III V. Conclusion (or whatever paragraph happens to be your conclusion) A. Reworded thesis (complete sentence) B. Re-cap of points (Warning! Do not simply plop topic sentences in here! Make your points again in a new way) C. Call to action: What should change and why? (complete sentences) D. Draw an insightful conclusion E. Clincher- Tie back to the motivator. Complete the framing device. SAMPLE BODY PARAGRAPH Not only are these parks inhumane, they are also expensive. It has been argued that dolphin parks provide the only opportunity for much of the public to see marine mammals. Sea World and other attractions with marine “life bring in lots of revenue because people cannot afford to take expensive trips to see them in person” (Smith 2). Many proponents of holding marine life captive argue that people who live in cities do not get to see these animals. However, they overlook the fact that there are more places where they can be seen in the wild than places where they can be seen in captivity. According to a recent study by the National Council for Wildlife Protection, “Most people would have to travel less and pay less to get to these locations than they would to get into marine parks” (Anderson 22). The Research Council correctly asserts that choosing to see wildlife in their natural habitat is less expensive on the consumer. Therefore, mammals should be left in their natural environment because places where there are wild marine mammals do not charge an exorbitant entry fee - they are free. INTRODUCING AN ARGUMENT When it comes to the topic of ______, most of us will readily agree that _______. Where this agreement usually ends, however, is on the question of __________. Whereas some are convinced that ___________, others maintain that ___________. In discussion of X, one issue has been__________. On the one hand, ________ argues _________. On the other hand, __________ contends________. Others even maintain _________. TEMPLATES FOR ARGUMENT Disagreeing, with Reasons X is mistaken because she overlooks…. X’s claim that … rests up on the questionable assumption that…. X’s view that….. is problematic because as Y points out, “……” By focusing on …., X overlooks the deeper problem of …. Proponents/Opponents of ______ are mistaken because they overlook(s) _________________. X’s claim that _________________ rests upon the questionable assumption that _________________. X’s view that _________________ is problematic because, as recent research (personal experience) has shown, _________________. By focusing on _________________, X overlooks the deeper problem of _________________. X claims _________________, however, anyone familiar with _________________ has long known that _________________. Agreeing It’s true that…. X is surely right about … because, as recent studies show… X’s point that … is extremely useful because it sheds light on the difficult problem of … Those unfamiliar with this school of thought may be interested to know that it basically boils down to…. Introducing Quotations X states, “blah blah blah blah.” As the prominent philosopher/noted researcher/author of “Blah Blah” X puts it, “….” According to X, “………” X himself/herself writes/notes/asserts “………” In her book/article, _________, X maintains that “………….” In X’s view, “………….” X’s view, “………..” X agrees when she writes, “……….” X disagrees when he writes, “……..” X complicates matters further when she writes, “…………..” Explaining Quotations – Remember, after ever quotation, you must explain it’s significance. Basically, X is warning that the proposed solution will only ….. In other words, X believes….. In making this comment, X urges …… X corroborates the age-old adage that X’s point is that The essence of X’s argument is that …….. Addressing objections Of course, there are those who disagree, saying…. On this point….. would probably argue that… ….. would certainly take issue with the argument that … Nevertheless, ….. would probably suggest otherwise and argue that…. In Text Citations General Guidelines 1. Cite any information that is not common knowledge. 2. The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1.) upon the source medium (e.g. Print, Web, DVD) and (2.) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited (bibliography) page. 3. Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry in the Works Cited List. 4. IF YOU USE THE AUTHOR’S NAME IN THE SENTENCE OR THE TITLE OF THE ARTICLE FROM AN ELECTRONIC SOURCE, YOU DO NOT NEED TO PUT ANYTHING IN PARENTHESIS. For specific questions, go to the MLA In-Text Citation link on my webpage.