新视野写作教案 （Unit 1 of Book 1） 1. OBJECTIVES：Develop a paragraph of cause & effect and send an e-mail. 2. WAY: To improve your writing skills: http://www.wooster.edu/writing_center/ The way to develop paragraphs: cause and effect The cause and effect technique can make clear the reasons why something happens by showing the relation between cause and effect. 3. STAGES: List the cause and effect of Paras. 2, 3, and 4. Para. 2 Cause: The kind and patient teacher often praised the students. Effect: I eagerly answered questions, not worrying about making mistakes. I was at the top of my class. Para. 3 Cause: The new teacher quickly punished those who gave wrong answers. Effect: I lost my eagerness to answer questions and my desire to say anything in English. Para. 4 Cause: Large classes made me only able to answer a couple of questions in each class period. Many students spoke much better than I did. Effect: I was afraid to speak. My English seemed to stay at the same level. I. Basic Sentence Patterns ① Subject + Link Verb + Predicative (主+系+表) ② Subject + Intransitive Verb (主+谓) ③ Subject + Transitive Verb + Object (主+谓+宾) ④ Subject + Transitive Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object (主+谓+间宾+直宾) ⑤ Subject + Transitive Verb + Object + Complement (主+谓+宾+补) Task 1 Judge the following sentence patterns 1. I had a kind and patient teacher who often praised all of the students. Subject + transitive Verb + Object (主+谓+宾) 2. Once in a while I cried with frustration, and sometimes I felt like giving up. Subject + Intransitive Verb (主+谓); Subject + Link Verb + Predicative (主+系+表) 3. Although at times, learning a language was frustrating, it was well worth the effort. Subject + Link Verb + Predicative (主+系+表) 4. Not only did learning another language teach me the value of hard work, but it also gave me insights into another culture. Subject + transitive Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object (主+谓+间宾+直宾) 5. Being able to speak a new language lets me meet new people, participate in conversations, and form new, unforgettable friendships. Subject + transitive Verb + Object + Complement (主+谓+宾+补) Task 2 Combine the following words and phrases into sentences. Make changes if necessary. ① me, enable, to, communicate with people from different backgrounds, learning English, have the opportunity to Learning English enables me to have the opportunity to communicate with people from different backgrounds. ② such as English songs, may, music, second, serve, as an interesting and effective way of learning English Second, music, such as English songs, may serve as an interesting and effective way of learning English. ③ challenges, me, teaching, and, first of all, give, the opportunity to keep on learning First of all, teaching gives me challenges and the opportunity to keep on learning. ④ in winter, one reason, be, that, fewer hours of sunlight, there be One reason is that there are fewer hours of sunlight in winter. ⑤ not only…but also, a very difficult and rewarding experience, learning a foreign language, a frustrating and valuable one, be Learning a foreign language is not only a very difficult and rewarding experience but also a frustrating and valuable one. II. Cause and Effect Writing When you explain the reasons why something happens by writing, you are having a cause and effect writing. Read the following passage and tell the cause and effect. Sample 1 (effect) Do you know why winter is colder than summer? (cause 1) One reason is that there are fewer hours of sunlight in winter. (cause 2) But there is another reason. Winter sunlight is cooler. The earth gets less heat from it, though it is the same sun, and it shines just as bright as in the summer time. (先果后因，多因一果) Sample 2 (cause)Shopping online has many advantages. First, the web-stores can keep customers updated about the best selling products. Second, they can provide customers with a wider range of choices. Third, it is very convenient and time-saving. (effect) I enjoy shopping online very much. Useful Expressions for Cause • • • • • • • • Owing to (because of/ thanks to) sth.… There are three reasons for this. The reasons for this are as follows... This is due to (results from) several factors. A number of factors could account for… One reason is that… … partly because…, partly because… Many factors that contribute to (lead to/account for)… include… Useful Expressions for Effect • • • • • • • So/Therefore/Consequently/As a result… The effect is evident/obvious. It will have/exert a deep influence (on…). It may cause a sweeping change. It leaves some serious consequences. It may give rise to a host of problems. The immediate result it produces is... Writing Task Write a paragraph of about 80 words, using the 5 patterns. Topic 1: English Study General Statement: I want to study English for different reasons. (For reference, Topic 1) I want to study English for different reasons. Firstly, English is generally considered as the most common language of communication throughout the world. For example, English is widely used in many fields such as science, business, entertainment, just to name a few. Therefore, learning English enables me to have the opportunity to communicate with people from different backgrounds and cultures. Secondly, learning English broadens my horizon, giving me insights into other cultures. And my mind is opened to new ways of viewing things. Topic 2: Enjoying Music General Statement: I am crazy about music for many reasons. Points:1) __________________. 2) __________________. 3) __________________. … (For reference, Topic 2) I am absolutely crazy about music. There are many reasons why I have such a strong love for it. To begin with, music, such as light music, has the magic power to make me feel relaxed after a day’s exhausting work. Second, there are many types of music that may serve as an interesting and effective way of learning, such as some English songs from various countries. By learning to sing these kinds of English songs, I would be able to appreciate the driving rhythms of these kinds of songs. Finally, music from different countries allows me to have access to different cultures around the world. Topic 3: My Ideal Job Topic sentence: My ideal job is to be an English teacher, and I want to stay in that profession for different reasons. Points:1) __________________. 2) __________________. 3) __________________. … Topic 3: My Ideal Job My ideal job is to be an English teacher. I would like to continue in that profession for various reasons. First of all, teaching gives me challenges and gives me the opportunity to further my learning and growth. For example, I would be able to learn while sharing knowledge with young minds. Also, as a teacher, I have the power to fan the spark of curiosity and help students discover their potential. Last but not least, it makes me much happy to be able to see people grow and change right in front of me. At the same time, I hope I will be able to grow and change with them as well. It would be a magnificent experience and journey for me. III. Practical Writing : E-mail Writing 1. E-mail address: Username + @ + Machine address Melody@sina.com 2. E-mail format To: Enter the recipient’s E-mail address. From: Your own E-mail address Subject: Enter the topic of your message; Be as brief as possible. Cc: Carbon copy (抄送) Bcc: Blind carbon copy (秘送) Attached: Documents, files and graphics can be attached. 3. E-mail message E-mail is meant to transfer information quickly, so it is purposely informal. Some people do not use capitalization. E-mail also makes use of a great deal of abbreviations to speed up typing. u you hand have a nice day 2 to tyvm thank you very much bb bye-bye Ilu I love you f2f face to face ur your iow in other words 4u for you 4. Samples Sample 1 (informal): Frank, hi. I have tons of ideas for the class. Need to know which parts of the movies u show. Have ordered all 3 books so they may go 2 u. I’ll be on the 6th fl in Eliz’s office from 4:00-5:00. Melody Sample 2 (formal): Happy New Year! Best wishes for a wonderful holiday, and for the rest of the year. My special resolution for the coming year is to write to you at least once a week, and I hope you’ll do the same. But just in case I forget, here’s a smile for every month of the year. Your E-Pal, Xiao Dong Difference between informal and formal messages In “Informal”, the style, form and language are more causal. In “formal”, the style, form and language are more standardized. Your Task Apply for an e-mail address on the website: http://www.yahoo.com. Then email your present English teacher in English about your new life at college or any other things.