Chapter 5 ()

Anatomy Lecture Notes
Chapter 5
I. functions
prevents water loss
body temperature control
synthesizes vitamin D
sensory reception
II. basic structure
the skin is an epithelial membrane (cutaneous)
epithelial layer = epidermis (stratified squamous keratinized e.)
c.t. layer = dermis (areolar c.t. and dense irregular c.t.)
A. epidermis
1. cells
a. keratinocytes are found in all layers and produce keratin
b. melanocytes are found in the stratum basale
 they make the pigment melanin and transfer it to keratinocytes
 melanin protects keratinocytes from ultraviolet (UV) radiation
 the lighter an individual's skin, the more of the melanin is degraded as
cells move towards the surface
 the amount of melanin in the skin increases with exposure to UV
c. Merkel cells are found in the stratum basale
 they are associated with dermal nerve endings
 they may be used for the sense of touch
d. dendritic (Langerhans) cells are found in the stratum spinosum
 they migrate to the skin from bone marrow and function as part of the
immune system
 they are sensitive to UV radiation
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Anatomy Lecture Notes
Chapter 5
2. layers
a. stratum basale/stratum germinativum - single layer of cuboidal or columnar
keratinocyte stem cells
 attached to c.t. of dermis
 cells undergo mitosis
 one daughter cell migrates to the next layer and one stays in the stratum
basale to be the new stem cell
b. stratum spinosum - 8 to 10 layers of keratinocytes
 gradually change shape from cuboidal to squamous as they migrate
towards the surface
c. stratum granulosum - 3 to 5 layers of keratinocytes with degrading nuclei
 cells contain keratin precursor molecules (keratohyalin) and granules of
 the glycolipids are secreted into the extracellular space
d. stratum lucidum - 3 to 5 rows of flat, dead keratinocytes
 contain eleidin, a precursor of keratin
 found in thick skin only (palms of hands and soles of feet)
e. stratum corneum - 25 to 30 layers of dead keratinocytes on surface layer of
 varies in thickness over body
 cells contain no nuclei or organelles
 keratin and glycolipids waterproof the skin
 cells slough
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Anatomy Lecture Notes
Chapter 5
B. dermis
1. layers
a. papillary layer - made of areolar c.t.
 dermal papillae project into epidermis (increase surface area of contact
for diffusion between layers and for adhesion)
 papillae contain nerve endings and capillaries
 on palms and soles, the papillae line up on top of dermal ridges
 the dermal ridges push the epidermis up to form friction ridges
 sweat glands open on the top of the friction ridges
b. reticular layer - deep to papillary layer, made of dense irregular c.t.
 contains blood vessels. nerves and nerve endings, hair follicles,
sudoriferous and sebaceous glands and arrector pili
2. nerve endings
a. free nerve endings
 pain and temperature
 touch (associated with Merkel cells)
 root hair plexus wraps around hair follicle
b. encapsulated
Meissner's corpuscles
Strong/Fall 2008
Pacinian corpuscles
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Anatomy Lecture Notes
Chapter 5
C. hypodermis/superficial fascia/subcutaneous layer
areolar and adipose c.t.
anchors skin to underlying structures
is not part of cutaneous membrane/skin
D. skin color
1. melanin ranges from yellow to black and is present in the epidermis
2. carotene is yellow to orange and is found mostly in the stratum corneum and
3. hemoglobin is the red pigment in blood and is present wherever there are blood
III. derivatives of the epidermis
A. hair - located everywhere except palms, soles, nipples, parts of external genitalia
1. follicle = tube of epidermis and c.t. from which hair grows
c.t. root sheath – surrounds epidermal root sheath
epidermal root sheath
outer layer is an invagination of the epidermis
inner layer comes from matrix of hair
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Anatomy Lecture Notes
Chapter 5
2. a hair is made of layers of dead cells containing hard keratin
a. shaft - projects above skin surface
b. root - inside follicle
c. bulb - expanded deep end of root; where growth occurs
matrix - layer of cells surrounding hair root papilla where mitosis occurs
hair root papilla - contains blood vessels
3. layers
a. medulla - central core absent from fine hair; consists of large cells separated
by air spaces
b. cortex - middle layer made of several layers of flat cells
c. cuticle - surface layer made of a single layer of overlapping flat cells
B. sebaceous glands - located everywhere there is hair
gland is an outgrowth of the epidermal root sheath and opens into the side of the
hair follicle
cells accumulate lipids (sebum) until they burst, then the whole cell is pushed into
the follicle
sebum softens hair and skin, prevents skin cracking and has antibacterial
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Anatomy Lecture Notes
Chapter 5
C. sudoriferous glands
1. eccrine - produce sweat for evaporative cooling
located everywhere except nipples and parts of external genitalia
sweat consists of water (more than 99%) and an insignificant amount of salt
and waste
the gland is simple coiled tubular and is located in the dermis
the duct is simple cuboidal and extends from the gland to the surface of the
skin (sweat pore)
2. apocrine - produce viscous fluid containing fats and proteins
located in axillary and pubic regions
ducts open into hair follicles
become active at puberty
bacteria break down the fats and proteins to produce body odor
D. other glands
1. ceruminous glands - modified apocrine glands in external ear canal the produce
ear wax
2. mammary glands - sweat glands that are modified to secrete milk
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Anatomy Lecture Notes
Chapter 5
E. nails are located on the digits and are made of hard keratin
dorsal view
longitudinal section
free edge
nail body
lateral nail fold
(stratum corneum)
proximal nail fold
nail root
nail matrix
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