geog160 exercise 1 - Cal State LA

Geography 160: Physical Geography
Take home exercise one
Dr. Hengchun Ye
1. All parallels are small circles. (a) true; (b) false
2. All meridians are great circles. (a) true; (b) false
3. Which circle goes through the center of the earth? A. great circle; b. small circle
4. Latitude is part of a ______ (meridian, parallel) that measures angular distance from the _______ (prime
meridian, equator)
5. Longitude is part of a ______ (meridian, parallel) that measure angular distance from the_______ (prime
meridian, equator).
6. 1° longitude at the equator has _______ (a shorter, a longer, the same) length as (than) at 60° latitude.
7. 1° latitude at the equator has _________ (a shorter, a longer, the same) length as (than) at 60° latitude.
8. Which of the following are true about the prime meridian: (a) It is part of a great circle; (b) It is part of a
small circle; (c) 0° longitude; (d) 0° latitude; (e) perpendicular to the equator
9. The shortest distance between two points on the earth’s surface is marked by a _______ (small, great) circle.
10. Which of the major types of map projections best for depicting middle-latitude regions?
(a) cylindrical; (b) interrupted; (c) conic; (d) stereographic; (e) planar
11. Which of the major types of map projections is best for tropical regions?
(a) cylindrical; (b) interrupted; (c) conic; (d) stereographic; (e) planar
12. Which of the major types of map projections is best for Antarctic regions?
(a) cylindrical; (b) interrupted; (c) conic; (d) stereographic; (e) planar
13. Which of the following is not a correct latitude readings and why. (a) 35°15′61″ S; (b) 91ºN; (c)
60º70′14″N; (d) 46º46′26″E
14. Which of the followings is not a correct longitude readings and why? (a) 91ºE; (b) 190ºW; (c)
150º80′40″W; (d) 10º20′20″E
15. If you travel from the Western Hemisphere to the Eastern Hemisphere towards Asia, when you cross the
international date line over the Pacific Ocean, (a) you skip one day; (b) you repeat one day.
16. When you travel eastwards, away from the Prime meridian, you are _______ (losing, gaining) time, so you
adjust your clock by ______ (adding, subtracting) hours.
17. If it is 8am in Los Angeles, CA, what time is it at Washington, DC where it is about 45° longitude east of
18. A map with a scale of 1:10,000 is a smaller scale map than that having a scale of 1:20,000. (a) true; (b)
19. Given the same size of a piece of paper, a small scale map shows less surface area and has more surface
detail than a large scale map. (a) true; (b) false
20. Given the same size of two maps, A is for Los Angeles, CA, and B is for California State. Which one has
more detail but includes less surface area? Which is a larger scale map?
21. Complete the following table of scales:
Fractional Scale
Linear or Graphic Scale
1 mile
Verbal Scale
1 inch equals 1 mile
1 inch equals 10 miles
1 mile = 63,360 inches; 1 foot = 12 inches; 1 mile = 5,280 feet
22. What is remote sensing?
23. What does GIS stand for and what does it do?
24. Many people believe that the distance between the earth and the sun is what causes the changes in the
seasons. Explain why this is not true.
25. Around which dates do each of the following celestial events occur? (a) Spring Equinox; (b) Summer
Solstice; (c) Autumnal Equinox; (d) Winter Solstice.
26. Looking at a globe or an atlas, you would notice the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, and the Arctic and
Antarctic Circles. How do physical geographers determine the latitudinal positions of these lines? How would
they determine the positions of the lines if the earth’s axis shifts in the future?
27. On the sketch of the earth below, carefully draw: (1) the sun’s rays, (2) the Tropic of Cancer, (3) the Circle
of Illumination, (4) the latitude where daylight is 12 hours long, (5) the polar axis for the 21st of December.
28. At what latitude are we, if the noon-time sun altitude is 90 on September 21?
29. What are the two dates during a year when there is 12 hours day light and 12 hours nighttime everywhere on
the earth’s surface?
30. Assume that the polar axis is inclined at an angle of 60 degrees instead of 66.5 degrees to the plane of
elliptic. Draw on the diagram below the: (a) Equator, (b) Tropic of Cancer, (c) Arctic Circle, and the (d) Circle
of Illumination as they would appear on the earth on June 21.
31. If the tilted angle of the earth’s axis (the angle between the axis and the plane of the ecliptic) increases,
which of the following are true?: (a) the Arctic Circle will move to a lower latitude; (b) the Arctic Circle will
move to a higher latitude; (c) the tropical regime (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn)
will increase; (d) smaller seasonal climate changes will be expected in most middle and high latitudes.
32. If the earth’s axis were perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic: (a) there would be no seasonal climate
changes; (b) there would be equal hours of daylight and night time everywhere on the earth’s surface; (c) the
Tropic of Cancer would be located at the Equator; (d) the Arctic Circle would be at the North Pole; (e) all of the
above are true.
33. When the earth is at its perihelion position, what season does the Northern Hemisphere experience? Does
the perihelion occur on the same date as the winter solstice? Why?
34. When the earth is at its aphelion position, what season does the Southern Hemisphere experience? Does the
aphelion occur at the same time as the summer solstice? Why?
35. If you can see the sun up in the sky in the middle of the night hours, where are you probably located? What
season is being experienced there?
36. When solar angle is high, solar intensity is _______ (high, low, is not related to solar angle).
37. Name the latitudinal zones based on the latitude belts below:
(a) 10°S-10°N; b) 25°-35° N or S; c) 35°-55°N or S; d) 75°-90°N or S; e) 60°-75°N or S
38. Compare two places, one is located at 45°and the other is at 25°N, which place has a larger seasonal change?
39. Does the summer solstice occur at the same date as the aphelion?
40. What are the greenhouse gases?
41. What is the greenhouse effect?
42. A form of energy that is transmitted in electromagnetic waves is: a) evaporation; b) sensible heat; c)
radiation; d) latent heat.
43. The largest amount of solar energy is concentrated in _______, and the highest energy intensity is found in
_______ . a) Ultraviolet; b) visible light; c) infrared
44. Which is the correct order of the electromagnetic waves from the shortest to the longest? a) Visible light;
infrared, Ultraviolet; b) Ultraviolet, infrared, visible light; c) Ultraviolet; visible light; infrared.
45. What is albedo?
46. Select a surface that has the highest albedo, and another surface that has the lowest albedo. a) forest; b)
sandy beach; c) fresh snow; d) clouds; f) ocean water
47. Radiation from the Sun is called _______ (short-wave, longwave) radiation; radiation from the earth and
atmosphere is called _______ (short-wave, longwave) radiation.
48. What percentage of the total solar radiation that reaches on top of the atmosphere can finally be absorbed by
the earth’s surface? a) 20%; b) 70%; c) 48%; d) 100%
49. _____ is the heat related to the phase change of water and _____ is the heat used in changing water
temperature. a) sensible heat; b) latent heat.
50. If there were no greenhouse gases, our earth’s surface temperature would be: a) much warmer; b) much
colder; c) the same.
51. List and explain three types of energy transfer.
52. Which is true about greenhouse gases? a) greenhouse gases reflect longwave radiation back to the earth’s
surface; b) greenhouse gases absorb solar radiation to increase the surface air temperature; c) greenhouse gases
are the major gases in the atmosphere; d) greenhouse gases absorb longwave radiation from the earth’s surface
and produce counter-radiation back to the earth.
53. The way energy is transferred when warm air rises and cool air subsides is called: a) radiation; b)
conduction; c) convection.
54. If the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere increases, the earth’s surface temperature will a)
decrease; b) increase; c) stay the same.
55.The largest amount of energy loss from the earth's surface is by ______: a) radiation; b) sensible heat; c)
latent heat
56. What are the three different temperature scales? Which scale is used in physics equations (has physical
57. What is meant by Lapse Rate? What is an Inversion?
58. The temperature gradient in winter is ________ (larger, smaller, the same as) that in summer.
59. List the four atmospheric layers from the bottom to the top based on different vertical temperature profiles.
60. Solstice and equinox are determined by ______ (a) the distance between the earth and sun; (b) the location
of subsolar point; (c) tilted angle of axis; (d) (b) and (c)
61. What are the three major environmental factors affecting air pollution concentration?
62. What does anthropogenic pollution mean?
63. What is PM10?
64. Pollutants get trapped under the ______ layer. (lapse rate; inversion; any atmospheric)
65. The coldest place on the earth’s surface is found in ________ a) mid-latitude land surfaces; b) Arctic ocean
surface; c) subarctic ocean surfaces; d) subarctic land surfaces
66. The temperature ________ (increases, decreases) with latitude in general.
67. The highest ozone concentration occurs in the ________ a) troposphere; b) stratosphere; c) mesosphere; d)
68. Temperature inversion is most common in the _________ a) troposphere; b) stratosphere; c) mesosphere.
69. Most weather events occur in the __________ a) troposphere; b) stratosphere; c) mesosphere; d)
70. Atmospheric carbon dioxide has been increasing more rapidly during the past few decades. a) true; b) false.
71. The annual temperature range is smallest in _______ a) the Arctic region; b) middle-latitudes; c) tropical
regions; d) equatorial regions.
72. The hottest places on the earth’s surface are found in _______ a) tropical oceans; b) equatorial oceans; c)
tropical deserts around 30 degree latitude; d) tropical rainforests
73. The temperature is generally ______ (colder, warmer) over a snow and ice surface than other surfaces.
74. The isotherms shift to _________ (higher; lower) latitude when moving from ocean surface to a land surface
during winter season.
75. Surface air temperature over oceans is _______ than that over land during summer. a) Cooler; b) warmer.
76. Surface air temperature over oceans is ________ than that over land during winter. a) Cooler; b) warmer.
77. Water heats up faster than anything else on the earth’s surface. A) true; b) false
78. Air temperature usually _______ (increases, decreases, stays constant) with height in the troposphere.
79. Which of the following is NOT a factor that determines surface air temperature pattern? A). latitude; b)
longitude; c) coastal-inner contrasts; d) elevation
80. Given the graph below, which line represents a typical winter isotherm and which line represents a typical summer
isotherm in the Northern Hemisphere?
81. What is an urban heat island?
82. What is continental effect (or continentality)? A city that has a higher continental effect has a ____ (larger;
smaller) annual and daily temperature range.
Geog160 Physical Geography
Dr. Hengchun Ye
Keys for Exercise one:
1. (b) false; 2. (a) true; 3. (a); 4. parallel, equator; 5. meridian, prime meridian; 6. a longer; 7.the same; 8. (a), (c),
and (e) are true; 9. great circle; 10. (c); 11. (a); 12. (e); 13.they are all wrong; 14. (b) and (c) are wrong; 15. (a);
16. losing time, adding hours; 17.11Am; 18. (b); 19. (b); 20. Los Angeles map, Los Angeles map;
Fractional Scale
Linear or Graphic Scale
Verbal Scale
1 mile
1 inch equals 1 mile
10 miles
1 inch equals 10 miles
½ mile
1 inch equals ½ mile
22. remote sensing is the information collections through distance without physical contact.; 23. GIS is geographic
information system; It is a computer-based data processing tool for gathering, manipulating, and analyzing
geographic information. 24.The tilted angle of the earth’s axis is the cause of the season because it changes solar
intensity and daylight hours. 25. a) March 21-spring equinox; (b) June 22-summer solstice; (c) September 23-fall
equinox; (d) December 22-winter solstice.
26. The latitude of Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn is 90 subtracted by the angle between the axis and the
plane of the orbit. The latitude of Arctic and Antarctic circles is same as the angle of the tilt.
Circle of Illumination: light on
the sunny side, darkness on the
other side.
Axis of Rotation
Please Note: although the
lines extend beyond the sun
in this example… they do not
really extend beyond the
planet in real life.
Axis is inclined
23.5° from the
Circle of
Latitude having 12
hours of daylight
Tropic of
Cancer is at
23.5° North
Latitude of the Vertical Sun
strikes on the Tropic of
Capricorn on December 21st.
Antarctic Circle is at 66.5° South Latitude… being defined by the
edge of the Circle of Illumination. 24 hours of daylight is found
28. We would be on the Equator, at 0° of latitude, during the Autumnal Equinox.
29. Two equinox dates: March 21 and September 23.
Arctic Circle: located at 60° North Latitude in this
example. Recall that the Arctic Circle is (Axis Tilt).
Plane of the Ecliptic: a
straight line from the Sun to
the Earth.
Circle of
perpendicular to the
Plane of the
Tropic of Cancer (at 30°N, 90°-angle of tilt)
Equator: is always
perpendicular to the Axis of
Axis of Rotation: tilted 60° to
the plane of ecliptic.
31. B & D would be true. The Arctic Circle would migrate to a higher latitude and the smaller seasonal
changes will be experienced in most middle and high latitudes
32. E, all of the above conditions would be correct.
33. The Northern Hemisphere would be experiencing winter. Perihelion is not the same date as the winter
solstice. Why is this? The distance between the earth and the sun determines the perihelion position. The
solstice is determined by the location of vertical solar radiation. The dates of the year during which the
perihelion and solstice occur are not the same… they are, in fact, about a week apart.
34. The Southern Hemisphere would be experiencing winter. Aphelion is not the same date as the summer
solstice in Northern Hemisphere.
35. You would be close to either of the poles during their summer seasons.
36. When the solar angle is high, the solar intensity is also high.
37. a. equatorial zone; b) subtropical zone; c) midlatitude zone; d) polar zone; e) Arctic and Antarctic zone
38. the place located on 45°N has a larger seasonal change. 39. no; 40.Carbon Dioxide, Water vapor, Nitro
oxide, methane, CFCs, ozone. 41. Greenhouse gases absorb longwave radiation from the earth’s surface and
re-radiate back to the earth, thus keep the earth’s surface warm. 42. (c ) radiation 43. largest amount energy
in concentrated in visible light, the highest intensity is in Ultraviolet radiation. 44.( c ). 45. albedo is the
percentage of solar radiation reflected back from a surface. 46. highest albedo is found in (c ) fresh snow and
lowest are in (a) forest and (f) water. 47. short-wave from the sun, and longwave from the earth and
atmosphere; 48. 48%; 49.latent heat is related to water phase change, sensible heat is related to water
temperature change 50. .colder. 51.conduction, convection, radiation 52. (d); 53.(c); 54. (b) increase; 55. (a)
56. ºF, ºC, and ºK, º K has physical meaning and used in mathematical equations. 57. Lapse rate is the rate of
air temperature decrease with height, inversion is temperature increase with height. 58. larger; 59.
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere. 60. (c); .61. wind, local and regional landscapes;
temperature inversion; 62. human-induced pollution;63. particulate matters having size of less than 10
micrometers that affect human health; 64. inversion; 65. (d); 66. decrease; 67. (b); 68. (b); 69.(a); 70.(a);
71.(d); 72. (c ); 73. colder; 74. lower; 75. (a); 76; (b). 77. (b); 78. decreases. 79 (b); 80. B represents winter
and A represents summer; 81. the minimum and maximum air temperature in city is a few degrees higher than
surrounding rural areas; 82. Continental effect has less marine influences and has larger daily and annual
temperature ranges.