1 Geography 160: Physical Geography Take home exercise one Dr. Hengchun Ye 1. All parallels are small circles. (a) true; (b) false 2. All meridians are great circles. (a) true; (b) false 3. Which circle goes through the center of the earth? A. great circle; b. small circle 4. Latitude is part of a ______ (meridian, parallel) that measures angular distance from the _______ (prime meridian, equator) 5. Longitude is part of a ______ (meridian, parallel) that measure angular distance from the_______ (prime meridian, equator). 6. 1° longitude at the equator has _______ (a shorter, a longer, the same) length as (than) at 60° latitude. 7. 1° latitude at the equator has _________ (a shorter, a longer, the same) length as (than) at 60° latitude. 8. Which of the following are true about the prime meridian: (a) It is part of a great circle; (b) It is part of a small circle; (c) 0° longitude; (d) 0° latitude; (e) perpendicular to the equator 9. The shortest distance between two points on the earth’s surface is marked by a _______ (small, great) circle. 10. Which of the major types of map projections best for depicting middle-latitude regions? (a) cylindrical; (b) interrupted; (c) conic; (d) stereographic; (e) planar 11. Which of the major types of map projections is best for tropical regions? (a) cylindrical; (b) interrupted; (c) conic; (d) stereographic; (e) planar 12. Which of the major types of map projections is best for Antarctic regions? (a) cylindrical; (b) interrupted; (c) conic; (d) stereographic; (e) planar 13. Which of the following is not a correct latitude readings and why. (a) 35°15′61″ S; (b) 91ºN; (c) 60º70′14″N; (d) 46º46′26″E 14. Which of the followings is not a correct longitude readings and why? (a) 91ºE; (b) 190ºW; (c) 150º80′40″W; (d) 10º20′20″E 15. If you travel from the Western Hemisphere to the Eastern Hemisphere towards Asia, when you cross the international date line over the Pacific Ocean, (a) you skip one day; (b) you repeat one day. 16. When you travel eastwards, away from the Prime meridian, you are _______ (losing, gaining) time, so you adjust your clock by ______ (adding, subtracting) hours. 17. If it is 8am in Los Angeles, CA, what time is it at Washington, DC where it is about 45° longitude east of California? 18. A map with a scale of 1:10,000 is a smaller scale map than that having a scale of 1:20,000. (a) true; (b) false 19. Given the same size of a piece of paper, a small scale map shows less surface area and has more surface detail than a large scale map. (a) true; (b) false 20. Given the same size of two maps, A is for Los Angeles, CA, and B is for California State. Which one has more detail but includes less surface area? Which is a larger scale map? 21. Complete the following table of scales: Fractional Scale Linear or Graphic Scale 0 1 mile Verbal Scale 1 inch equals 1 mile 1 inch equals 10 miles 1:31,680 Information: 1 mile = 63,360 inches; 1 foot = 12 inches; 1 mile = 5,280 feet 2 22. What is remote sensing? 23. What does GIS stand for and what does it do? 24. Many people believe that the distance between the earth and the sun is what causes the changes in the seasons. Explain why this is not true. 25. Around which dates do each of the following celestial events occur? (a) Spring Equinox; (b) Summer Solstice; (c) Autumnal Equinox; (d) Winter Solstice. 26. Looking at a globe or an atlas, you would notice the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, and the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. How do physical geographers determine the latitudinal positions of these lines? How would they determine the positions of the lines if the earth’s axis shifts in the future? 27. On the sketch of the earth below, carefully draw: (1) the sun’s rays, (2) the Tropic of Cancer, (3) the Circle of Illumination, (4) the latitude where daylight is 12 hours long, (5) the polar axis for the 21st of December. 28. At what latitude are we, if the noon-time sun altitude is 90 on September 21? 29. What are the two dates during a year when there is 12 hours day light and 12 hours nighttime everywhere on the earth’s surface? 30. Assume that the polar axis is inclined at an angle of 60 degrees instead of 66.5 degrees to the plane of elliptic. Draw on the diagram below the: (a) Equator, (b) Tropic of Cancer, (c) Arctic Circle, and the (d) Circle of Illumination as they would appear on the earth on June 21. 3 31. If the tilted angle of the earth’s axis (the angle between the axis and the plane of the ecliptic) increases, which of the following are true?: (a) the Arctic Circle will move to a lower latitude; (b) the Arctic Circle will move to a higher latitude; (c) the tropical regime (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn) will increase; (d) smaller seasonal climate changes will be expected in most middle and high latitudes. 32. If the earth’s axis were perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic: (a) there would be no seasonal climate changes; (b) there would be equal hours of daylight and night time everywhere on the earth’s surface; (c) the Tropic of Cancer would be located at the Equator; (d) the Arctic Circle would be at the North Pole; (e) all of the above are true. 33. When the earth is at its perihelion position, what season does the Northern Hemisphere experience? Does the perihelion occur on the same date as the winter solstice? Why? 34. When the earth is at its aphelion position, what season does the Southern Hemisphere experience? Does the aphelion occur at the same time as the summer solstice? Why? 35. If you can see the sun up in the sky in the middle of the night hours, where are you probably located? What season is being experienced there? 36. When solar angle is high, solar intensity is _______ (high, low, is not related to solar angle). 37. Name the latitudinal zones based on the latitude belts below: (a) 10°S-10°N; b) 25°-35° N or S; c) 35°-55°N or S; d) 75°-90°N or S; e) 60°-75°N or S 38. Compare two places, one is located at 45°and the other is at 25°N, which place has a larger seasonal change? 39. Does the summer solstice occur at the same date as the aphelion? 40. What are the greenhouse gases? 41. What is the greenhouse effect? 42. A form of energy that is transmitted in electromagnetic waves is: a) evaporation; b) sensible heat; c) radiation; d) latent heat. 43. The largest amount of solar energy is concentrated in _______, and the highest energy intensity is found in _______ . a) Ultraviolet; b) visible light; c) infrared 44. Which is the correct order of the electromagnetic waves from the shortest to the longest? a) Visible light; infrared, Ultraviolet; b) Ultraviolet, infrared, visible light; c) Ultraviolet; visible light; infrared. 45. What is albedo? 46. Select a surface that has the highest albedo, and another surface that has the lowest albedo. a) forest; b) sandy beach; c) fresh snow; d) clouds; f) ocean water 47. Radiation from the Sun is called _______ (short-wave, longwave) radiation; radiation from the earth and atmosphere is called _______ (short-wave, longwave) radiation. 48. What percentage of the total solar radiation that reaches on top of the atmosphere can finally be absorbed by the earth’s surface? a) 20%; b) 70%; c) 48%; d) 100% 49. _____ is the heat related to the phase change of water and _____ is the heat used in changing water temperature. a) sensible heat; b) latent heat. 50. If there were no greenhouse gases, our earth’s surface temperature would be: a) much warmer; b) much colder; c) the same. 51. List and explain three types of energy transfer. 52. Which is true about greenhouse gases? a) greenhouse gases reflect longwave radiation back to the earth’s surface; b) greenhouse gases absorb solar radiation to increase the surface air temperature; c) greenhouse gases are the major gases in the atmosphere; d) greenhouse gases absorb longwave radiation from the earth’s surface and produce counter-radiation back to the earth. 53. The way energy is transferred when warm air rises and cool air subsides is called: a) radiation; b) conduction; c) convection. 54. If the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere increases, the earth’s surface temperature will a) decrease; b) increase; c) stay the same. 55.The largest amount of energy loss from the earth's surface is by ______: a) radiation; b) sensible heat; c) latent heat 4 56. What are the three different temperature scales? Which scale is used in physics equations (has physical meaning)? 57. What is meant by Lapse Rate? What is an Inversion? 58. The temperature gradient in winter is ________ (larger, smaller, the same as) that in summer. 59. List the four atmospheric layers from the bottom to the top based on different vertical temperature profiles. 60. Solstice and equinox are determined by ______ (a) the distance between the earth and sun; (b) the location of subsolar point; (c) tilted angle of axis; (d) (b) and (c) 61. What are the three major environmental factors affecting air pollution concentration? 62. What does anthropogenic pollution mean? 63. What is PM10? 64. Pollutants get trapped under the ______ layer. (lapse rate; inversion; any atmospheric) 65. The coldest place on the earth’s surface is found in ________ a) mid-latitude land surfaces; b) Arctic ocean surface; c) subarctic ocean surfaces; d) subarctic land surfaces 66. The temperature ________ (increases, decreases) with latitude in general. 67. The highest ozone concentration occurs in the ________ a) troposphere; b) stratosphere; c) mesosphere; d) thermosphere. 68. Temperature inversion is most common in the _________ a) troposphere; b) stratosphere; c) mesosphere. 69. Most weather events occur in the __________ a) troposphere; b) stratosphere; c) mesosphere; d) thermosphere. 70. Atmospheric carbon dioxide has been increasing more rapidly during the past few decades. a) true; b) false. 71. The annual temperature range is smallest in _______ a) the Arctic region; b) middle-latitudes; c) tropical regions; d) equatorial regions. 72. The hottest places on the earth’s surface are found in _______ a) tropical oceans; b) equatorial oceans; c) tropical deserts around 30 degree latitude; d) tropical rainforests 73. The temperature is generally ______ (colder, warmer) over a snow and ice surface than other surfaces. 74. The isotherms shift to _________ (higher; lower) latitude when moving from ocean surface to a land surface during winter season. 75. Surface air temperature over oceans is _______ than that over land during summer. a) Cooler; b) warmer. 76. Surface air temperature over oceans is ________ than that over land during winter. a) Cooler; b) warmer. 77. Water heats up faster than anything else on the earth’s surface. A) true; b) false 78. Air temperature usually _______ (increases, decreases, stays constant) with height in the troposphere. 79. Which of the following is NOT a factor that determines surface air temperature pattern? A). latitude; b) longitude; c) coastal-inner contrasts; d) elevation 80. Given the graph below, which line represents a typical winter isotherm and which line represents a typical summer isotherm in the Northern Hemisphere? A Ocean a Land B N b 81. What is an urban heat island? 82. What is continental effect (or continentality)? A city that has a higher continental effect has a ____ (larger; smaller) annual and daily temperature range. 5 Geog160 Physical Geography Dr. Hengchun Ye Keys for Exercise one: 1. (b) false; 2. (a) true; 3. (a); 4. parallel, equator; 5. meridian, prime meridian; 6. a longer; 7.the same; 8. (a), (c), and (e) are true; 9. great circle; 10. (c); 11. (a); 12. (e); 13.they are all wrong; 14. (b) and (c) are wrong; 15. (a); 16. losing time, adding hours; 17.11Am; 18. (b); 19. (b); 20. Los Angeles map, Los Angeles map; 21. Fractional Scale Linear or Graphic Scale Verbal Scale 1:63,360 0 1 mile 1 inch equals 1 mile 1:633,600 0 10 miles 1 inch equals 10 miles 1:31,680 0 ½ mile 1 inch equals ½ mile 22. remote sensing is the information collections through distance without physical contact.; 23. GIS is geographic information system; It is a computer-based data processing tool for gathering, manipulating, and analyzing geographic information. 24.The tilted angle of the earth’s axis is the cause of the season because it changes solar intensity and daylight hours. 25. a) March 21-spring equinox; (b) June 22-summer solstice; (c) September 23-fall equinox; (d) December 22-winter solstice. 26. The latitude of Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn is 90 subtracted by the angle between the axis and the plane of the orbit. The latitude of Arctic and Antarctic circles is same as the angle of the tilt. Circle of Illumination: light on the sunny side, darkness on the other side. 27. Axis of Rotation Please Note: although the lines extend beyond the sun in this example… they do not really extend beyond the planet in real life. Sunlight Axis is inclined 23.5° from the Circle of Illumination. Latitude having 12 hours of daylight Tropic of Cancer is at 23.5° North Latitude Sunlight Latitude of the Vertical Sun strikes on the Tropic of Capricorn on December 21st. Sunlight Antarctic Circle is at 66.5° South Latitude… being defined by the edge of the Circle of Illumination. 24 hours of daylight is found here. 28. We would be on the Equator, at 0° of latitude, during the Autumnal Equinox. 29. Two equinox dates: March 21 and September 23. 30. Arctic Circle: located at 60° North Latitude in this example. Recall that the Arctic Circle is (Axis Tilt). 6 Plane of the Ecliptic: a straight line from the Sun to the Earth. Circle of Illumination: perpendicular to the Plane of the Ecliptic. Tropic of Cancer (at 30°N, 90°-angle of tilt) Equator: is always perpendicular to the Axis of Rotation! Axis of Rotation: tilted 60° to the plane of ecliptic. 31. B & D would be true. The Arctic Circle would migrate to a higher latitude and the smaller seasonal changes will be experienced in most middle and high latitudes 32. E, all of the above conditions would be correct. 33. The Northern Hemisphere would be experiencing winter. Perihelion is not the same date as the winter solstice. Why is this? The distance between the earth and the sun determines the perihelion position. The solstice is determined by the location of vertical solar radiation. The dates of the year during which the perihelion and solstice occur are not the same… they are, in fact, about a week apart. 34. The Southern Hemisphere would be experiencing winter. Aphelion is not the same date as the summer solstice in Northern Hemisphere. 35. You would be close to either of the poles during their summer seasons. 36. When the solar angle is high, the solar intensity is also high. 37. a. equatorial zone; b) subtropical zone; c) midlatitude zone; d) polar zone; e) Arctic and Antarctic zone 38. the place located on 45°N has a larger seasonal change. 39. no; 40.Carbon Dioxide, Water vapor, Nitro oxide, methane, CFCs, ozone. 41. Greenhouse gases absorb longwave radiation from the earth’s surface and re-radiate back to the earth, thus keep the earth’s surface warm. 42. (c ) radiation 43. largest amount energy in concentrated in visible light, the highest intensity is in Ultraviolet radiation. 44.( c ). 45. albedo is the percentage of solar radiation reflected back from a surface. 46. highest albedo is found in (c ) fresh snow and lowest are in (a) forest and (f) water. 47. short-wave from the sun, and longwave from the earth and atmosphere; 48. 48%; 49.latent heat is related to water phase change, sensible heat is related to water temperature change 50. .colder. 51.conduction, convection, radiation 52. (d); 53.(c); 54. (b) increase; 55. (a) radiation; 56. ºF, ºC, and ºK, º K has physical meaning and used in mathematical equations. 57. Lapse rate is the rate of air temperature decrease with height, inversion is temperature increase with height. 58. larger; 59. troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere. 60. (c); .61. wind, local and regional landscapes; temperature inversion; 62. human-induced pollution;63. particulate matters having size of less than 10 micrometers that affect human health; 64. inversion; 65. (d); 66. decrease; 67. (b); 68. (b); 69.(a); 70.(a); 71.(d); 72. (c ); 73. colder; 74. lower; 75. (a); 76; (b). 77. (b); 78. decreases. 79 (b); 80. B represents winter and A represents summer; 81. the minimum and maximum air temperature in city is a few degrees higher than surrounding rural areas; 82. Continental effect has less marine influences and has larger daily and annual temperature ranges.