Industrial/Organizational Psychology

Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Final Exam Review
You will NOT be responsible for the material highlighted in red in this outline
What is Industrial / Organizational Psychology?
The Nature of Work
o Work defined
o Employees’ needs that are satisfied
o The Psychological Contract
The Nature of Employees: Management Philosophies (The 3 philosophies and the Hawthorne studies)
Understanding Employee Behavior: Contingency View
The Professional Resume
Arrangement of Information
Media Formats
Resume Embellishment
Research in I/O Psychology
Applied Research
o Typical Goals
o Self-Report Research (Questionnaires; Personal Interviews - advantages & drawbacks of each)
o Correlational Research
 Correlation Coefficient (Pearson r)
Basic Research
o Goal
o Experimental Research (definition & basic elements)
 Two Group Design
 Multiple Groups Design
 Factorial Design
 Psuedoexperiment
Nature & Characteristics of Organizations
Defining an “Organization”
Organizational Structure (Hierarchy of Authority, Division of Labor, Span of Control)
An "Open Systems" View of Organizations
Organizational Culture
o Definition
o Dimensions of Organizational Culture (the 6 dimensions)
o Other Aspects (Dominant/Subcultures)
o How is Culture Communicated?
o Does Culture Effect Employee Behavior? (Sheridan research)
Performance Appraisal
Definition (purpose; timing)
Possible Measures of Job Performance
Conceptual Issues (Relevance, Deficiency, Contamination)
Ratings as a Measure of Job Performance
o Common Rating Errors
o Reducing Rating Errors
o Effects of Ingratiating Behaviors (types of ingratiating behaviors; Watt research)
Job Satisfaction
Definition as an Attitude
Major ‘Components’ of Job Satisfaction
Theories of Job Satisfaction
o Two-Factor Theory (definition)
 Herzberg research; Hygiene & Motivator factors
o Value (Comparison) Theory (definition)
 Test of Value (Comparison) Theory (McFarlin & Rice research)
o Dispositional Theory (definition)
 Test of Dispositional Theory (Cropanzo, James, & Konovsky research)
Employee Motivation
Theories of Motivation (Content and Process Theories)
o Job Characteristics Theory
 Key Job Characteristics
 Complete Model (characteristics / critical psych. states / outcomes)
 Motivating Potential Score
o Learning Theory
 Possible Consequences of Behavior (Pos/Neg Reinforcement & Pos/Neg Punishment)
 Observational Learning
o Equity Theory
 Assumption / Definition
 Inputs / Outcomes
 Basics (Three Possible Results)
 How Do We Restore Equity? (Behavioral & Psychological Reactions)
 Equity and Pay Cuts (Greenberg research)
 Equity and Office Status (Greenberg research)
 Additional Issues (Equity Sensitivity & False Uniqueness)
o Expectancy Theory
 Three components and three employee beliefs
Employee Selection - Applicant Screening
Pre-Employment Drug Testing
o Techniques
o An Evaluation of Preemployement Drug Testing (Normand)
o Implications
How Do Recruiters Evaluate Applicants?
o Policy Capturing Research / Multiple Regression
o What Factors Do Recruiters Use to Make Decisions? (Gardner, Kozloski, & Hults research)
Employee Selection – The Selection Interview
Goals of Selection Interview
Format of Interaction
Basic Model of Person Perception
o Spontaneous Stage
o Deliberative Stage (Confirmation Bias)
Major Problem
Employee Selection – Validation of Psychological Tests for use in Selection
Test "Validity" (Basic Psychological View and I/O Psych view)
Test Validation Study (Criterion-Related)
o The 4 steps; validity coefficient
Basic Assumptions
Determining a Test Cutoff Score
Outcomes of Selection Decisions
o Effect of Higher Test Cutoff Score
o Effect of Higher Test Validity
Employee Selection – Standardized Tests
A Standardized Test
o Defining Characteristics
o Other Considerations
Types of Standardized Tests Used for Employee Selection
Workplace Violence
Who Commits Violent Acts in the Workplace?
Who Commits Workplace Homicide?
Contributing Factors to Workplace Homicide by Employees
o Personality, Personal “Triggers,” Workplace “Triggers,” Societal Trends
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