Unit 4. Matter and Atomic Theory

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Chedid – Applications of Chem 2010
Name_______________________
Applications of Chemistry – Review for Final Exam
Unit 4.
Matter and Atomic Theory
1. Describe how matter is organized.
2. You should be able to identify diagrams and distinguish between atoms,
molecules, compounds, mixtures, gases, and solids.
a. What is represented in Figure A?
b. Does Figure B represent a compound or an element? Explain.
c. Which diagrams show only molecules? What is different about the molecules
represented by the diagrams?
Unit 5.
The mole concept
Recognize that atoms are too small to count directly. We determine how many
there are in a sample by finding their mass. We use the mole to determine the
number of atoms and molecules. Molar mass (on Periodic Table) is relative mass,
based originally on hydrogen (lightest element).
1. Be able to determine the molar mass of a compound.
Example: Determine the molar masses.
Pb(NO3)2
BaSO4
2. Be able to determine the number of atoms or moles using Avogadro’s number and
the molar mass of a compound.
Example:
use molar mass
12 g MgCl2 x
moles MgCl2
=
use Avogadro’s number
3 moles NaCl x
=
atoms Cl
3. Be able to determine the empirical formulas from data.
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Chedid – Applications of Chem 2010
A compound is composed of 7.20 g of carbon, 1.20 g of hydrogen, and 9.60 g of
oxygen. Find the empirical formulas for this compound.
4. Be able to define and determine percent composition from a formula.
KMnO4
MgCl2
Unit 6: Internal Structure of Atoms
1. Be able to distinguish between molecular and ionic solids in terms of appearance
and other properties:
Molecular solids:
Ionic solids:
2. Be able to demonstrate knowledge of the meaning of a chemical formula in terms of
atoms and molecules.
Given the formula of a compound, identify the number of atoms present.
Example: Identify the number of atoms of each kind in each compound.
Pb(NO3)2
Na3PO4
Al2(SO4)3
3. Name ionic and molecular compounds from formulas and vice versa.
Write the formula of binary compounds (formed from two kinds of atoms).
a potassium iodide
b. nitrogen dioxide
c. sodium oxide
d. aluminum chloride
d. tin(IV) chloride
f. iron(III) sulfide
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g. phosphorus tribromide
4. Write the name of binary compounds (formed from two kinds of atoms).
a. SnO
b. SnBr4
c. SO2
d. Al2O3
f. NCl3
g. CaO
5. Write the formula or name of compounds formed from polyatomic ions.
a. calcium nitrate
b. potassium phosphate
c. aluminum acetate
d. ammonium sulfate
e. Al(OH)3
f. Cu2SO4
g. (NH4)2CO3
Unit 7. Chemical Reactions and equations
1. Be able to distinguish between the meaning of coefficients and subscripts in a
balanced chemical equation.
2. Example: Draw pictures to represent the balanced equation:
Ba
Modeling Chemistry
+
2HCl --> BaCl2
3
+
H2
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Chedid – Applications of Chem 2010
2. Correctly balance a chemical equation (know the meaning of coefficients).
Change these word equations to symbols.
a. barium chlorate, when heated, produces barium chloride and oxygen gas.
b. ethane, C2H6, burns in air to produce carbon dioxide and water.
c. lime, (calcium oxide) reacts with sulfur dioxide to form calcium sulfite.
d. chromium reacts with oxygen to produce chromium(III) oxide.
2. Be able to demonstrate knowledge that matter is conserved in ordinary chemical
reactions.
Example: If 3.6 g of water is decomposed, 3.2 g of oxygen and what mass of
hydrogen will be produced?
3. Be able to classify reactions as either combination, decomposition, single
replacement, double replacement or combustion
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
C3H8 + 5 O2  3 CO2 + 4 H2O
2 Fe + 3 CuCl2  3 Cu + 2 FeCl3
Na2SO4(aq) + BaCl2(aq)  2 NaCl(aq) + BaSO4(s)
2 LiBr  2 Li + Br2
2 Na + Cl2  2 NaCl
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Unit N: Nuclear Chemistry.
1.Know definitions of the following terms:
Atomic number
Mass number
Isotopes
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2. Know charge, mass and location of the following subatomic particles:
Protons:
Neutrons:
Electrons:
3. Be able to determine number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in a neutral
atom given its atomic number and mass number and write proper atomic
notation:
a.
magnesium
b.
chromium
c.
iron
d.
copper
e.
lead
4. Be able to determine number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in a monatomic
ion given its atomic number and mass number:
a. Sodium ion
b. Chlorine ion
c. Copper II ion
5. Be able to determine number of protons, neutrons, and electrons, mass number
and write proper atomic notation for isotopes:
a. Carbon-14
b. Uranium 238
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6. Know the following atomic models and be able to draw and label them:
a. Dalton’s
b. Thomson’s
c. Rutherford’s
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