Student 1 This terra cotta warrior sample provides a quickwrite sample for combining different types of resources. If every resource is a website, it can lack variety. Primary resources are always best (actual artifacts, interviews, historical essays/papers by people who lived in the time period), so it's a good idea to access the National Archive in Perris (mentioned in another text block). Additionally, all photos in the poster must be cited in the annotated bibliography. Joe Student National History Day Leadership and Legacy October 12, 2014 The Sleeping Army A sleeping army lay buried underground, awaiting the opportunity to take the world unaware. Of course, being made from terra cotta clay, it would hardly be able to conquer militarily. However, over 2,000 years ago Emperor Shi Huangdi left a testament to his military conquest and iron rule. Although he only held on to power for 15 years, China’s first emperor was uniquely able to organize a feudal society into a sprawling empire. On a typical spring day in March 1974, farmers working in a field came upon a surprising discovery when their shovel dug into not earth, but hard clay. Typically farmers plant persimmons and pomegranates, but this day they were unearthing artifacts (Lubow 2009). After unearthing their discovery they realized they had found figures of men made from terra cotta (O’Conner 412). These figures were obviously soldiers, because of their uniforms and weapons. All of the figures were life-sized replicas, it is believed, of actual soldiers from Emperor Shi Huangdi’s army. Uniquely positioned facing East, every figure faces the direction of other Chinese states that were conquered and transformed into united provinces (Porter 437). No two faces are identical to one another. An array of special armament adorns the terra cotta warriors. Rather than sculpting breakable weapons, the figurines are set in military marching formations four and five abreast. Student 2 They are armed with swords, spears, and crossbows (Gottdiner). Ironically, many of the warriors do not wear helmets or carry shields, which represented bravery in battle (Placanica 7). There are very few weapons remaining, probably due to grave robbers over the years. Those weapons that remain, however, are still sharp as a razor. Another ancient people group buried their leaders with similar respect and dignity. Rather than thousands of clay soldiers, however, the ancient Pharaohs of Egypt were buried above the desert sand under thousands, even millions of granite stone slabs. They seemed to have a shared belief in an afterlife, for which supplies, tools, and servants would be necessary. It was hoped, therefore, that the presence of mummified servants would serve a similar purpose to terra cotta warriors. Obviously Emperor Shi Huangi, also known as the fierce tiger of Qin, the divine Son of Heaven, was prepared to handle any challenge thrown his way (O’Conner 413). He was a conqueror on earth, and he looked forward to being a conqueror again in the afterlife. In spite of having 700,000 people work on his tomb of 7,000 warriors, Emperor Shi Haungdi’s dynasty ended after only 15 years. Similar to the military society of Adolf Hitler, his absolute power produced absolute hatred among his subjects, who revolted and established the Han dynasty. To his credit, he took warring states of greedy nobles and forged them into a powerful, unified empire that cuts through the pages of history. His dynasty, in effect, gave the Chinese people the skeletal structure upon which could be built the vast cultural accomplishments of the later Han dynasty. Student 3 Armored Kneeling Archer Annotated Bibliography* Gottdiner, Doug. (2013, February). The Great Wall of China. Riverside: Woodcrest Elementary. Lecture This class lecture provided a general overview of the Qin Dynasty. The coil pottery method used in the forming of the terra cotta warriors was painstaking. Particular care had to be used, or they would easily crumble. This resource was beneficial for learning the craftsmanship required for the assembling and bisque firing of the warriors. Lubow, Arthur. Terra cotta soldiers on the march. Smithsonian Magazine. July 2009. Web. 15 October 2014. <http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/On-the-March-Terra-CottaSoldiers.html> This website details the sheer scale of the terra cotta warrior project. It provided insight not only into the enormity of the project, but also into the painstaking care given to each individual warrior’s facial features. It is a paradox that such a legalistic emperor would think individual features were important. Student 4 Placanica, Helen.“The construction projects of Shi-Huangdi”. Eds. Baker, R. & F. Baker. Calliope: China’s first emperor: Shi-Huangdi. Peterborough: Cobblestone Publishing, Inc. October 1997. 27-31. Print. For a specific look each building project accomplished by this unique emperor, look no further. This periodical contains many specific examples, and showcases the grandest discovery of them all, the terra cotta warriors. Porter, Priscilla, ed. Reflections: Ancient civilizations. Orlando: Harcourt, Inc. 2007. 414. Print. This school text offered general information about the terra cotta warriors. It was beneficial for an introduction into the content of the chose thesis regarding the Qin Dynasty and how its leadership affected the development of modern China under the Han. O’Connor, Jane. “The emperor’s silent army”. In Reflections: Ancient Civilizations Ed. P. Porter. Orlando: Harcourt, Inc. 2007. 410-413. Print. From its initial discovery to its preservation and care, this article provides a helicopter view of the Qin Dynasty’s terra cotta warriors. The timeline of events from creation, to burial, to being lost and found is a remarkable perspective for the reader to enjoy. Qin Dynasty. “Armored Kneeling Archer”. 221-206 BCE. Terracotta. Minneapolis Institute of the Arts. 28 October 2012. Web. 3 Nov. 2014 This particular terra cotta warrior has a striking facial expression. One can almost “see” him looking at his emperor, and knows he is ready to serve him in this life, and in whatever fate awaits him in the next. *An annotated bibliography is a regular bibliography + a short explanation of the resource and its usefulness to the project’s research. It helps the judge see into the mind of the student, and decide how well they used a wide variety of primary and secondary resources. Some contestants find it helpful to separate their bibliography into a Primary Resource and Secondary Resource Section. MLA formatting links: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/05/ Poster: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/media/jpeg/MLAPoster09.jpg Student Samples, Follow the Bibliography link: http://www.nhd.org/contest-affiliates/examples/#toggle-id-2 Student 5 Required Elements Indent second line. PowerPoint Class Lecture Internet article Reading Book Calliope magazine History Book Bibliography Examples Identified by Type Last name, First Name. Title Captialized in Italics. City: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication. Gottdiner, Doug. (2011, February). The Great Wall of China. Lecture given in History: Ancient China, Woodcrest Elementary, Riverside, CA. Lubow, Arthur. Terra cotta soldiers on the march. Smithsonian Magazine. July 2009. Web. 15 October 2014. <http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/On-the-March-Terra-CottaSoldiers.html> Mann, Elizabeth. (2003). “The great wall”. In Cooper, J.D. & Pikulski, J.J., Reading: California. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 391-401. Placanica, Helen. “The construction projects of Shi-Huangdi”. Eds. Baker, R. & F. Baker. Calliope: China’s first emperor: Shi-Huangdi. Peterborough: Cobblestone Publishing, Inc. October 1997. 27-31. Print. Porter, Priscilla, ed. Reflections: Ancient civilizations. Orlando: Harcourt, Inc. 2007. 414. Print. History Book Article O’Connor, Jane. “The emperor’s silent army”. In Reflections: Ancient Civilizations Ed. P. Porter. Orlando: Harcourt, Inc. 2007. 410-413. Print. Web Photo Qin Dynasty. “Armored Kneeling Archer”. 221-206 BCE. Terracotta. Minneapolis Institute of the Arts. 28 October 2012. Web. 3 Nov. 2014 Time for Kids National Geographic Rudy, Lisa Joe “The Silk Road”. Time for Kids Readers. Orlando: Harcourt, Inc. 2007. Print. Sochurek, Howard. “Berlin on both sides of the wall”. National Geographic. December 1970: 3. Print.