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Sex & Gender
Revision Sheet
1)
Define the term ‘sex’. (1)
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2) Define the term ‘gender’. (1)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3) Define Masculinity (1)
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
4) Define Femininity (1)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
5) Define Androgyny (1)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
6) Describe some traits associated with Masculinity (1)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
7) Describe some traits associated with Femininity (1)
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
8) Describe some traits associated with androgyny (1)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
9) Core Theory: Biological Theory – fill in the gaps:
Stages
Male
Female
When a foetus is formed, it has
……….. sex chromosomes. This
pair of chromosomes decides
whether
…this will be …………………… (XY)…
Or female (………………..)
After 6 weeks of pregnancy, the
sex chromosomes have an effect
on the development of the
………………………
The Y chromosome ‘switches on’
a hormone in the male foetus
making the gonads into
……………………….…
…or the gonads will turn into
………………………...
The gonads then produce
hormones
Testes produce high levels of
…………………………
Ovaries produces high levels of
…………………………..
These hormones affect the
…………………………… of the child
Males have better brains for
certain skills e.g. more
……………………….. and
competitive…
Females have better brains for
certain skills e.g. more sensitive,
………………………………… and
caring.
The hormones also affect the
behaviour of the child
Testosterone makes behaviour
more masculine e.g. superior
mathematical and spatial skills
Oestrogen makes behaviour
more feminine e.g. superior
verbal and communication skills.
aggressive
2
XX
compassionate
gonads
ovaries
testosterone
male
oestrogen
testes
brain
10) Biological Theory: Evolution – Highlight the key words:
The biological approach also believes that that human behaviour and gender is instinctive and that instincts
have helped us to survive and reproduce. So individuals have physical differences to help them reproduce
(penis or vagina) and psychological differences to help them reproduce.
Evolution may explain why females appear more caring and sensitive. Since they have to carry and then raise
the young, and breast feed, they need to be better equipped with needy babies. Additionally, they need
superior communication skills so they can teach their young or for sharing childcare with other mothers.
Evolution may explain why males appear more aggressive and competitive. This is because they have to fight
for the resources to provide for their partner and their children. Additionally, they would have needed
superior visual spatial skills to help them hunt (aim a spear) and to find their way back home.
11) Biological Theory Evaluation: AO2 Colour Code the table
Reductionist
P: One limitation of the biological
approach is that it is reductionist.
E: This is because all men are
biologically similar and all women
are biologically similar, yet the two
sexes can show a different range
of behaviours.
E: This is an issue because the
approach does not consider the
choice that people have in their
gender development.
L: As a result, the biological
Cannot Explain Individual
Differences
P: Another issue with the
biological approach is that it is
deterministic.
Deterministic
P: Furthermore, another issue with the
biological approach is that it cannot
explain individual differences.
E: This is because it reduces the
complexity of gender roles down
to the role of chromosomes and
hormones.
E: This is because it argues that gender
roles are ‘fixed’ and that they are
innate and born within us.
E: This is an issue because if all
men have the same chromosome
patterns and have the same
levels of testosterone, how can
the biological approach explain
why one male may act masculine
and another one act feminine? It
must be due to individual
differences and the psychological
aspect of gender development
instead.
L: Consequently, the explanatory
E: This is an issue because gender roles
maybe learnt. For example, a young
boy may be socialised by his parents
into a masculine gender by playing
with the action figures they have given
him. Or a young girl may imitate her
mother as she is her role model.
L: Consequently, the biological
approach is considered an
inadequate explanation as a core
theory into explaining the
development of gender roles.
power of the biological approach
is reduced in explaining gender
development because it does not
consider the idea of ‘free will’.
approach lacks explanatory power in
explaining gender development.
12) Alternative Theory – Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory
a) According the Psychodynamic theory, where do gender roles develop?
b) What are the names of the complexes?
c) At what age do the gender roles develop?
d) Which complex happens to girls?
e) Which complex happens to boys?
f) What is castration anxiety?
g) How is the Oedipus complex resolved?
h) What is penis envy?
i) What is a penis substitute?
j) How is the Electra complex resolved?
13) Core Study: Diamond and Sigmundson (1997) – circle the correct key word (underlined).
Aim: To investigate the role of biology/environment in the development of gender/personality. Procedure:
Diamond and Sigmundson produced a case study/lab experiment of a boy who had been raised a girl. Bruce
lost his penis/arm in an operation that went wrong. They conducted interviews to help them to describe the
life history of this boy. Findings: Bruce & Brenda initially seemed to adopt her feminine gender role. However
as she became a teenager/OAP she had a masculine gender identity. She eventually decided to live her life as
a boy. Conclusion: Bruce’s biology/environment determined his gender rather than his upbringing.
14) Core Study AO2 – Match up the sentences to create a peel.
Low Population Validity
P: One limitation of Diamond
and Sigmundson’s study is that
it has low population validity.
Researcher Bias
P: A further limitation of Diamond and
Sigmundson’s research is that it may be
subjected to researcher bias (by Dr
Money).
Internal Validity
P: Another issue with Diamond and
Sigmundson’s study is that it has low
internal validity.
E: This is because case studies
are very thorough
investigations, so researchers
may become too involved in
what they are studying when
this happens, researchers may
stop being objective.
E: For example, in Bruce’s case
he had a twin brother who
looked just like him. This gave
him a masculine role model
that he could easily imitate.
E: This is because case studies are based
on naturally occurring situations (i.e. no
one would remove a baby’s penis in
order for them to be raised as a girl), so
it is not possible to control key
variables.
E: This is because they used a case study to
investigate the effect of biology on gender,
this used a very small sample of one
individual.
E: For example, Dr Money was accused
of interpreting Brenda’s behaviour to
provide evidence for his assumptions.
He was so keen to show that a boy
could be raised as a girl that he failed to
report on the fact that Brenda was
struggling with her feminine identity.
L: This overall, casts doubt over the
credibility of this study in proving the
importance of biology in gender
development.
E: For example, just because Bruce could
not adapt to his new gender role, does not
mean that other boys would not be able
to. Bruce may have been the exception to
the rule.
L: Consequently, this casts
doubt over the credibility of the
research as the results may not
be interpreted scientifically and
objectively.
L: As a result, we cannot generalise
Diamond and Sigmundson’s findings (that
gender is more a product of nature than
nurture) to the wider population. Overall,
this reduces the wider applicability of the
research.
15) Real Life Applications: Education – fill in the gaps
There is some evidence of …………………………. differences between males and females. Some …………………………….. has
found that males have better ……………………………skills than females. This would suggest that …………………………. need
to spend more time developing these skills in female students to give them the same …………………………………….. as
males. For example, females may need more instruction in map reading skills in……………………………….. , more
support in doing transformation in Maths or more coaching in ……………………………………… in PE. Meanwhile there is
reliable evidence to suggest that ……………………………… are stronger verbally. This means that teachers may need to
find other ways of …………………………………. and assessing male students, besides getting them to talk about what
they know.
visual-spatial
teachers
hand-eye coordination
Natural
females
testing
research
opportunities
Geography
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