# 5.2.4.E 4th grade Standard: Physical Science: Physical science

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```5.2.4.E 4th grade
Standard: Physical Science: Physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual
tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science. (5.2)
Strand: Forces and Motion: It takes energy to change the motion of objects. The energy change is understood in terms of forces. (5.2.E)
Unit/
Chapter
Unit F
Chapter
1
Chapter
2
Essential
Question
How can
energy be
transferred
from one
material to
another?
What
happens to
a material
when
energy is
transferred
to it?
Content Statements
Motion can be
described as a change
in position over a
period of time.
There is always a
force involved when
something starts
moving or changes its
speed or direction of
motion. A greater
force can make an
Enduring
Understanding
Changes take place
because of the transfer of
energy.
Labs, Investigation, and Student Experiences
5.2.4.E.1
Resources
 National Science Digital Library, Science Digital Literacy Maps: The
Physical Setting: Laws of Motion
http://strandmaps.nsdl.org/?id=SMS-MAP-1357
Energy is transferred to
matter through the action
of forces.

Different forces are
responsible for the
transfer of the different
forms of energy.
5.2.4.E.2
 Conduct an investigation with motion and forces. Using a ramp, toy car,
meter stick and stopwatch, record the time it takes for the car to travel down
the ramp.
http://nsdl.org/refreshers/science/

Cumulative Progress
Indicators
Demonstrate through
modeling that motion is a
change in position over a
period of time. (5.2.4.E.1)
Identify the force that
starts something moving
or changes its speed or
direction of motion.
(5.2.4.E.2)
National Science Digital Library, Science Refreshers
Discuss the forces at work on the car and predict ways to make the car travel
farther, slower and faster. Generate explanations based on evidence.

Complete Investigation on page F54- F55 “Forces on a Sliding Box”. In this
investigation, you will measure the force that you need to slide a box across
several different materials. You will order the measurements and use them to
compare the materials.
Resources
 National Science Digital Library, Science Digital Literacy Maps The
Physical Setting: Laws of Motion

http://strandmaps.nsdl.org/?id=SMS-MAP-1357
National Science Digital Library, Science Refreshers
http://nsdl.org/refreshers/science/
5.2.4.E.3
Investigate and categorize
Time
Frame
20-21
Days
5.2.4.E 4th grade
object move faster and
farther.
Magnets can repel or
attract other magnets,
but they attract all
matter made of iron.
Magnets can make
some things move
without being
touched.
materials based on their
interaction with magnets.
(5.2.4.E.3)

Look at various objects, make predictions about whether they were
magnetic, and then test their predictions. This exploration is an introductory
activity to magnets and magnetism. (See ScienceNetLinks: Magnets 1:
Magnetic Pick-ups
Investigate, construct, and
generalize rules for the
effect that force of gravity
has on balls of different
sizes and weights.
(5.2.4.E.4)
Earth pulls down on
all objects with a force
called gravity. Weight
is a measure of how
strongly an object is
pulled down toward
the ground by gravity.
With a few
exceptions, objects
fall to the ground no
matter where they are
on Earth.
Desired Results/Assessments
Sample Assessments
5.2.4.E.1
To show evidence of meeting this CPI, students
may answer the following questions:
 Observe moving objects and create symbolic
representations that describe their motion.
 Note: The graph or model should include
http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons.php?BenchmarkID=4&amp;DocID=175)

Discover how barriers and increased distance can vary the strength of a
magnet. (See ScienceNetLinks: Magnets 2: How Strong is Your Magnet?
http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons.php?DocID=159
Resources
 National Science Digital Library, Science Digital Literacy Maps The
Physical Setting: Electricity and Magnetism

http://strandmaps.nsdl.org/?id=SMS-MAP-1332
National Science Digital Library, Science Refreshers
http://nsdl.org/refreshers/science/
5.2.4.E.4
 Investigate techniques to make careful observations of the relative time of
fall for objects dropped of different masses from the same height at the same
instant. Use the evidence to explore generalized rules governing the force of
gravity.
 Predict, with reasoning, which would land first, a feather or a hammer, if
they were dropped at the same time. Then watch as Apollo 15 astronaut
Dave Scott recreates Galileo’s famous gravity experiment while on the
surface of the moon.
 Using conceptual understanding of gravity, explain the results of Dave
Scott’s experiment. The Hammer and Feather video is available at:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mTsrRZEMwA
 Note: With a few exceptions, objects fall to the ground no matter where
they are on Earth.
 Note: Weight and mass are not the same thing. Mass is a measure of how
much matter an object is made of. Weight is a measure of the force of
gravity on that mass. This is why a person weighs different amounts on
Earth than s/he does on Saturn.
 Note: Controlling for wind resistance, objects with different masses will
fall at the same speed. For example, a falcon feather and a hammer will
5.2.4.E 4th grade
the distance an object moved and the time it
took for it to move that distance.

5.2.4.E.2
Use the picture below of Sharon pulling a wagon
on a level sidewalk to answer questions 1 and 2.
land at the same instant if an astronaut drops them at the same time in a
near vacuum.
Replicate and explain at least one of Galileo's investigations. Use online and
text resources to compile information about the work Galileo did in studying
gravity's effect on falling objects.
Resources
 National Science Digital Library, Science Digital Literacy Maps: The
Physical Setting: Conservation of Matter

http://strandmaps.nsdl.org/?id=SMS-MAP-1372
National Science Digital Library, Science Refreshers
http://nsdl.org/refreshers/science/
1. How would the movement of the wagon be
affected if she pulled harder on the wagon?
(VA)
2. How would the movement of the wagon be
affected if her little brother were sitting in the
wagon?
(VA)
3. A person pushes a box as shown. What is the
push most likely to change?
A. The size of the box
B. The mass of the box
C. The color of the box
D. The position of the box
(VA)
Two different-shaped objects were dropped from
the same height. Data from the investigation was
recorded, as shown below.
5.2.4.E 4th grade
4. Explain why the average times to fall were
different for the two objects. In the explanation
be sure to include:
 the errors in this investigation
 how these errors affected the outcome
 how the investigation should be improved
to obtain valid data
(MD)
5.2.4.E.3
Different materials are attracted by magnets.
1. Which items are attracted by a magnet?
A. copper cylinder and iron nail
B. steel paper clip and iron nail
C. steel paper clip and copper cylinder
D. aluminum washer and steel paper clip
(MD)
2. What makes the needle on the compass in the
picture point north?
A. rainfall
B. evaporation
C. wind currents
D. magnetism
5.2.4.E 4th grade
(VA)
3. An object is placed on a table. A magnet is
slowly moved toward it and the object moves
away from the magnet. The object is most
likely —
A. another magnet
B. a piece of glass
C. a copper coin
D. an iron nail
(VA)
4. Explain how two magnets react when placed
near each other, including the properties of
magnets.

Use Chapter Assessment
5.2.4.E 4th grade
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