Chapter 25: The Industrial Revolution, 1700

Chapter 25: The Industrial Revolution, 1700 - 1900
Section 2 – Industrialization
Industrialization Changes Life
 Industrial Cities Rise
o For centuries, most Europeans lived in ________________
o After 1800, the balance shifts toward cities
Caused by the growth of the ________________
Most of the urban areas _________ in population – some even _______________
o This period was one of ______________ – city building and the movement of people to cities
 Living Conditions
o Because cities grew rapidly, they had no development plans, sanitary codes or building codes
Lacked ___________________________________________________________________
o Workers lived in dirty shelters with whole families crowding into 1 bedroom
o Sickness was widespread: Epidemics of __________ regularly hit the slums of industrial cities
o Wealthy merchants and factory owners built luxurious homes in suburbs
 Working Conditions
o To increase production, factory owners kept machines running as many hours as possible
The average worker spent ____ hours a day on the job, ___ days a week
o Factories posed dangers
Were seldom well lit or clean; There were no government programs to aid workers who got
o Most dangerous conditions were found in _____________
Frequent accidents, damp conditions and the constant breathing of coal dust made the
average miner’s life span ____________ shorter than other workers
______________________were employed because they were a cheap source of labor
Class Tensions Grow
______________ gripped the working class while the Industrial Revolution created enormous wealth in the
nation. Most of this new money belonged to factory owners, shippers and merchants who were part of a
growing __________________ - a social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, businesspeople and
wealthy farmers.
Chapter 25: The Industrial Revolution, 1700 - 1900
 The Middle Class
o In the past, landowners and aristocrats occupied the top positions in society and wielded social and
political power
o Now, factory owners, merchants and bankers grew wealthier than landowners and aristocrats
o Social distinctions divided the 2 wealthy classes
Landowners looked down on those who made their money in the business world
o Gradually, a larger middle class – ______________________________ – emerged
The ______________________ consisted of government employees, doctors, lawyers and
manager of factories, mines and shops; The ____________________ included factory
overseers and skilled workers
All enjoyed a comfortable standard of living
 Working Class
o Between 1800 – 1850, the working class saw ________________________ in their living and
working conditions
Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution
The __________________________________ had a number of positive effects: created jobs for workers,
contributed to the wealth of the nation, fostered technological progress and invention increased the
production of goods and raised the standard of living. Other benefits included healthier diets, better housing,
cheaper clothing and expanded education opportunities. The middle and upper classes prospered
immediately. It took longer for the working class, but eventually they got higher wages, shorter hours and
better working conditions after they formed labor unions.
 Long-Term Effects
o The long-term effects are still evident
Most people in industrialized countries can afford consumer goods that would have been
considered _____________________
_______________ and _________________ conditions are much improved
Profits derived from industrialization provide _________________, which allow
governments to invest in ________________________________and raise the