Urban Environments Revision Sheet: The Syllabus Key Idea from syllabus Urbanisation is a global phenomenon. Urban areas have a variety of functions and land uses. There are aspects of urban living in a richer part of the world that need careful planning in order to support the population and environment of cities and towns Content Students should appreciate the different pace and causes of urbanisation in the rich and poor world. Students should gain an appreciation of different functional parts of a settlement including locations of CBD, inner city, suburbs and ruralurban fringe. Overview of the issues facing many urban areas. Housing – the attempts to satisfy the increased housing needs of the population in different parts of the city. Impact of Government strategies from the 1990s on the inner city. Traffic – impact of increased use of road transport on the environment and solutions aimed at reducing the impact. Revitalising the image of the CBD by improving the physical environment. Rapid urbanisation has led to the development of squatter settlements and an informal sector to the economy Cultural Mix – factors causing ethnic segregation within urban areas. Strategies aimed at supporting the multicultural nature of many urban areas. Characteristics of squatter settlements. Effect on the lives of the people of living in squatter settlements. Attempts by the inhabitants themselves to improve squatter settlements over time. Revised Self-help, Site and Service and Local Authority schemes to improve squatter settlements. Rapid urbanisation in a poorer part of the world requires the management of the environmental problems caused. Attempts can be made to ensure that urban living is sustainable. A case study of a squatter settlement redevelopment Effects of rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Difficulties of disposal of waste, much of which is toxic. Effects and management of air and water pollution. Characteristics of a sustainable city. Environmental – the importance of conserving the historic and natural environment. Use of Brownfield sites. Reducing and safely disposing of waste. Providing adequate open spaces. Social – including local people in the decision-making process. Provision of an efficient public transport system. A case study of sustainable urban living. KEY WORD TABLES FOR Urban Environments Key words Urbanisation Rural – urban migration Land use Function CBD Central Business District Inner city Suburbs Key words Household Brownfield sites Greenfield sites Urban Development Corporations (UDCs) City Challenge Regeneration Gentrification Definitions A process where an increasing proportions of the population lives in towns and cities resulting in their growth. Moving home from a rural area to settle in a town or city. The type of building or other features that are found in the area, e.g. terraced housing, banks, industrial estates, roads, parks. The purpose of a particular area, e.g. for residential use, recreation or shopping. The main shooing and service area in a city. The CBD is usually found in the middle of a city so that it is easily accessible. The area around the CBD- usually built before 1918 in the UK. The area on the edge of the city. Many suburbs were built after 1945 and get newer as the y reach the edge of the city. Definitions A person living alone or two or more people at the same address, sharing a living room. Land that has been built on before and is to be cleared and reused. These sites are often in the inner city. Land that has not been built on before, usually in the countryside on the edge of the built up area. Set up in the 1980s and 1990s using public funding to buy land and improve inner city areas, party by attracting private investment. A strategy in which local authorities had to design a scheme and submit a bid for funding, competing against other councils. They also had to become part of a partnership involving the local community and private companies who would fund part of the development. Improving an area. Houses are bought then improved which then attracts more people into the area and raises house prices. Sustainable community Quality of life Park and ride schemes Segregation Key words Squatter Settlements Informal sector Self help Site and service Key words Industrialisation Disposal of waste Landfill Recycling A community that is broadly in balance with the environment and offers people a good quality of life. How good a persons life is measured by such things as quality of housing and environment, access to education, health care, how secure people feel and how happy they are with their lifestyle. A bus service run to key places from car parks on the edges if busy areas in order to reduce traffic flows and congestion in the city. Costs are low to encourage people to use the system. Occurs when people of a particular ethnic group choose to live wit others from the same ethnic group, separate from others groups. Definitions Areas of cities (usually on the outskirts) that are built by people from any materials they can find in the land that does not belong to them. They have different names in different parts of the world (e.g. favela in Brazil) and are often known as shanty towns. That part of the economy where jobs are created by people to try to get an income (e.g. taking in washing mending bicycles) and which are not recognised in official figures. Sometimes known as assisted self-help (ASH), this is where local authorities help the squatter settlement residents to improve their homes by offering finance in the form of loans or grants and often installing water, sanitation etc. Occur when land is divided into individual plots and water, sanitation, electricity and basic track layout are supplied before any building by residents begins. Definitions A process usually associated with the development of the economy, where an increasing proportion of people work in industry. Safely getting rid of unwanted items such as solid waste. A means of disposing of waste by digging a large hole in the ground and lining it before filling it with rubbish. Collection and subsequent reprocessing of products such as paper, aluminium cans, Air pollution Transnational Corporations TNCS Water pollution Sustainable city Green belt land Urban sprawl Sustainability plastic containers and mobile phones, instead of throwing them away. Putting harmful substances into the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide. Companies that spread their operations around the world to try to reduce costs. Putting poisonous substances into water courses such as sewerage, industrial effluent and harmful chemicals. An urban area where residents have a way of life that will last a long time. The environment is not damaged and the economic and social fabric is able to stand the test of time. Land on the edge of the built up area, where restrictions are placed on building to prevent the expansion of towns and cities and to protect the natural environment. The spreading of urban areas into the surrounding rural/rural urban fringe areas. Development that looks after future resources and considers the need of future generations. Urban Environments CASE STUDIES Context and link to syllabus Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. A case study of a squatter settlement redevelopment. Content 60% of people in Nairobi live in slums. Half of them live in Kibera. Population of 800,000- 1 million people. Area 255ha. High population density. 100,000 orphans due to AIDS/HIV. Homes made of mud, boards, wood, corrugated iron sheeting. Open sewers. Rubbish not collected. Smells of charcoal burnt for fuel, smells of human waste. Running water expensive but available to some areas. High crime rate, groups offer protection at a high price. Residents welcome visitors, they try to keep clean. Solutions to the problems: Things are improving in Kibera. - London 2012 Olympics. Curitiba, Brazil. A case study of sustainable urban living. Attempts can be made to ensure that urban living is sustainable. A case study of sustainable urban living. Attempts can be made to ensure that urban living is sustainable. Practical Action (British charity) has been developing low cost roofing tiles. These allow the self-help schemes to progress. - United Nations Human Settlement Program provided affordable electricity to some parts. - 2 main water pipes, one provided by the council and one by the World Bank. Slow progress on improving sanitation. - Medical facilities are provided by charities. - Plans to re house thousands of residents. 770 families have been re housed in new blocks of flats with running water, toilets, showers and electricity. Sustainable legacy for local communities. Improved the physical environment and also looked to ensure the long term sustainability of the economy, retailing and transport. - Built on brownfield site, on derelict land. New parks and landscaping. 70% events take place at park reducing the need for transport and reducing traffic congestion. - No car parking- encourages people to use public transport. - 97% of materials from demolished buildings were reused in the construction. - Buildings such as the velodrome, have been designed to minimise energy use. - Rainwater collected and used to flush toilets. - Green spaces created. - Cycle tracks. - Facilities to be used in the future for other events such as the 2017 Athletic championships. - Affordable housing created. 7th largest city with population of 1.8million. Model for planning and sustainability. 1968 Curitiba master plan adopted to control urban sprawl, reduce traffic, develop public transport and preserve the historic sector. Emphasis on keeping quality of life good for residents. -28 Riverside parks -100miles of city trails -Land designed to reduce flooding. Green Exchange program- people in shanty towns exchange rubbish for bus tickets and food. 70% rubbish is recycled. BRT System (Bus Rapid Transport) -1st Brazilian city to have dedicated bus lanes. Direct speedy bus routes. Housing- city has public housing policy that ensures people have adequate housing not just shelter.