EUROPE & RUSSIA: Humans & Physical Environment Chapt 14, Sect 2 1. How do people adapt to climate conditions in different parts of Europe and Russia? Climates, unlike weather, do not change from day-to-day, so people have an opportunity plan ahead and be prepared for their climate. Their clothing, homes, and food reflect the climate conditions and resources of where they live. 2. How have people learned to modify and use the physical environment and natural vegetation of Europe and Russia? The North Central Plains were once covered by dense, deciduous forests. These forests were cut to expand the farming areas. With its dark, rich soil, favorable climate (due to the warming winds from the Gulf Stream), and plentiful water, this area now produces most of what is needed to feed Europeans. Cities have grown up in this area, and the North Central Plains is the second most densely populated region on Earth. (Only areas in Asia are more densely populated.) As you go farther north and the climate is much colder, only moss and grasses grow on the tundra and fewer people have adapted to this climate. deciduous trees that lose their leaves coniferous trees with cones that cover their seeds and needle-like leaves taiga huge forested area (coniferous trees) across Russia (primarily Siberia) prairies grasslands steppes Russian grasslands tundra treeless plains in arctic and sub-arctic climates where the ground ispermanently frozen permafrost permanently frozen soil Barcelona a city in northeaster Spain with a Mediterranean climate Irkutsk a city in southern Siberia with a sub-arctic climate Norway Scandinavian country on the North Sea Iceland European island nation near the Arctic Circle EUROPE & RUSSIA: Humans & Physical Environment Grassland Russian Steppes South American Pampas North American Central Plains Chapt 14, Sect 2 Tundra Arctic & sub-arctic climates Treeless plains Permafrost NATURAL VEGETATION Forest Deciduous trees (leaves) Coniferous (needles, cones) Tiaga covers most of Siberia Nuggets: Norway and Iceland have a marine west coast climate – rainy year round. Countries that form a ring around the Mediterranean Sea are in the “rain shadow” of the Alpine Mountain system; its dry, warm weather creates a sub-tropical climate. Most of Eastern Europe is humid Continental (cool summers, cold winters), though there is much humidity from the winds blowing across the Gulf Stream. Factors that influence climate: wind/water; size of region; latitude; elevation; and mountains. Factors that influence vegetation: temperature, rainfall, altitude, and latitude. Tiaga in Russia covers more than 4,000,000 square miles. In Iceland, Norway, and northern Russia people have had to find ways to raise food and construct shelters without the natural resources that forests provide. _________________________________________________________________________________ SUMMARY: People find ways to adapt to the climate and to modify the natural vegetation where they live.