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THERE’S MORE THAN MEETS THE EYE: POPULATION STRUCTURE
IN THE CERATITIS “FAR COMPLEX”
M. VIRGILIO*1,2, H. DELATTE3, T. BACKELJAU2,4, S. QUILICI3, and M. DE MEYER1
1 Royal
Museum for Central Africa, Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren, Belgium
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Vautierstraat 29, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium
3 UMR C53 PVBMT CIRAD-Université de la Réunion, CIRAD Pôle de Protection des Plantes, F97410 Saint-Pierre,La Réunion, France
4 Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp,
Belgium
2
*Corresponding author: E-mail: [email protected]
Analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences hitherto failed to resolve the three
morphospecies of the so-called Ceratitis “FAR complex” (C. fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa).
Therefore, we developed a set of microsatellite markers for a first population genetic survey
of this species complex. Specimens of C. fasciventris, C. anonae, and C. rosa (27 populations,
n=621) collected across their respective distribution ranges were genotyped at 16
polymorphic microsats. Genetic distance analyses distinguished at least five bootstrap
supported population groups, each including samples from one of the three morphospecies.
The Bayesian assignments implemented in STRUCTURE show that (1) C. rosa is represented
by at least two clusters of individuals (R1, R2) that can occur in sympatry/parapatry, but that
may have different developmental thresholds, (2) C. fasciventris is represented by at least
two, geographically separated, clusters (F1, F2),
and (3) C. anonae is genetically more homogeneous and doesn’t show a clear intraspecific
structuring (cluster A). The differentiation of the C. rosa and C. fasciventris clusters is
supported by morphological differences in the male secondary sexual characters. Genetic
divergences between the C. rosa clusters and between the C. fasciventris clusters are
comparable to the interspecific divergences among C. fasciventris, C. anonae, and C. rosa.
Higher genetic distances were observed between the morphologically similar C. rosa and C.
fasciventris, while C. anonae appears as closely related to both F1 and R2. The microsats
used in this study thus unmasked a complex, and partly cryptic, population genetic structure
within the FAR morphospecies.
Keywords: Tephritidae, population genetics, microsats
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