Transport Research Arena 2014, Paris Evaluation of road transport effect on atmospheric air: method of emission computations and use of results Vadim Donchenko, Yuli Kunin, Andrei Ruzski, Vladimir Vizhenski * Joint-Stock Company “Scientific and Research Institute of Motor Transport”(NIIAT), Moscow, Russia Abstract The subject is methods for computation of road transport emissions inventory used in the Russian Federation. The results of comparative computation analysis using updated NIIAT OJSC and CORINAIR methods are provided. The estimated emissions have been verified using findings of field atmospheric air studies within roadside areas. Estimation of pollutant emissions from road transport in Moscow made by the use of NIIAT procedure are laid down. Keywords: road transport, emissions, pollutants, computational procedures, model verification Résumé Le sujet est des méthodes de calcul de l'inventaire des émissions du transport routier utilisé dans la Fédération de Russie. Les résultats de l'analyse comparative de la mise à jour NIIAT OJSC et méthodes CORINAIR sont fournis. Les estimations des émissions provenant du trafic et des données sur Moscou conventionnel ont été vérifiés en utilisant les résultats des études de l'air atmosphérique sur le terrain dans les zones en bordure de route. Mots-clés: le transport routier, les émissions, les polluants, les procédures de calcul, la vérification de modèle _________________ * Corresponding author information there. Tel: +7-495-496-55-23; fax: +7-495-496-61-36. E-mail address: [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; Vadim Donchenko, Yuli Kunin, Andrei Ruzski, Vladimir Vizhenski /Transport Research Arena 2014, Paris 1. Introduction Road transport in the Russian Federation remains one of the major sources of atmospheric air pollutants. In major cities it accounts for up to 90% of emissions. In the Russian governmental environment quality management system the procedures for computational evaluation (inventory) of pollutant emissions and climatic gases from road transport play essential role. Quantitative evaluation of pollutant emissions from road transport is needed for accomplishment of practical tasks aimed at enhancing stability of the transport systems performance, in particular, for: evaluation of ecological efficiency of various engineering and planning concepts in road transport area and taking various measures and decisions in the transport policy; computation of fees for environment pollution by road transport operators and fines for environment pollution above permissible limits. Inclusion of the modules for computation of road transport pollutant emissions distribution and exposure, estimation of the health effect in the system of ecological appraisals makes it possible to accomplish a large number of tasks related to environment quality management (Fig.1). Evaluation of Оценка экологоenvironmental and экономического ущерба economic damage Исходная Baseline инфорdata мация Module of Модуль road расчета transport emissions выброcomputation сов от АТ Evaluation Оценка of efficiency of эффективности мероприятий measures taken Pollutant Выбросы emission ЗВ s Расчет платыof Computations за environment загрязнение pollution fee ОС Estimation of Риски Risk of diseases возникновения заболеваний Проведение environment ОВОС проектов impact evaluation projects Module Модульof pollutant расчета рассеdissipation ивания computation загрязнений КонценPollutant трации concentrations ЗВ Расчет of Computation штрафных fines for санкций за environmental экологические contraventions нарушения Модуль Module of расчета impact экспоcomputation зиции воздействия Pollutant Дозы поглаabsorption щения rate ЗВ Module Модульof health оценки воздейimpact ствия на evaluation здоровье Evaluation Оценка ущерба of damage от потери to health здоровья Economic instruments Экономические инструменты Fig.1. The system for evaluation of road transport effect on environment and human health In the Russian Federation the first methods for road transport emissions inventory were approved for use as far back as in 80s of the last century. These Methods are widely used in practice and are completed and reproduced in commercial software. 2. Research methods Methodologies for evaluation of road transport pollutant emissions adopted in various countries (CORINAIR, MOBILE, IVE etc.) are rather similar. Calculation of emissions may be based on fuel consumption (simple approach) or results of traffic flow studies (or modelling). In the second case specific running exhaust emissions are used. Emissions of gaseous substances which aren`t regulated by requirements of international regulations concerning design of vehicles are computed on the basis of percentage of these substances in non-methane volatile organic compounds (NМVОС). Vadim Donchenko, Yuli Kunin, Andrei Ruzski, Vladimir Vizhenski /Transport Research Arena 2014, Paris The Methods accepted in Russia are based on the well-known approach which may be generally expressed as follows: h M i 106 mik N k Lk (1) k 1 where: Mi mass emission of i pollutant, t; mik Nk specific distance-related i pollutant emissions from a motor vehicle of the k-th type, g/km; total number of motor vehicles of the k-th type; Lk h aggregate distance travelled by motor vehicles of the k-th type, km; number of motor vehicle types under study. Below we shall examine in detail the basic provisions of recently updated procedure for calculation of emissions from road transport in the biggest cities. In calculations for segments of road networks by the source of emission is meant a linear segment of a street (road) of specified traffic volume and relatively uniform traffic conditions (in this case Lk =L is meant the length of such a segment and Nk is meant volume of motor vehicles of k-th type traffic on the segment). The set of such segments defines the real urban road network with real traffic flows. Such approach makes it possible to obtain rather accurate evaluation of aggregate emissions. When evaluating emissions from motor vehicles within selected areas it is advisable to take account of the emissions related to vehicle start-up and engine warm-up on the parking areas and emissions of pollutants generated by fuel evaporation. With these components the formula (1) may be rewritten as follows: M i 10 where: Pik ( t ) Tk ( t ) Qik h h -6 h m N L P (t )T (t ) Q ik k k ik k ik k 1 k 1 k 1 (2) specific emissions of i pollutant on vehicle start-up and engine warm-up in a vehicle of the k-th type (according to ambient air temperature), g/min; average time of vehicle`s start-up and engine warm-up for the k-th type vehicle (according to temperature), min; emissions of i pollutant due to fuel evaporation from k-th type vehicle. It should be underlined that in spite of similarity of used approaches specific features of the Russian motor vehicle fleet and conditions of its operation do not allow direct use for calculation of respective foreign specific emission figures. These specific features include: considerable congestion of urban transport networks and, hence, significant difference between real traffic conditions and traffic conditions simulated in standard driving cycles; significant share in the fleet and traffic of motor vehicles with obsolete construction and environmental performances which are much lower than those for motor vehicles of similar environmental class in European countries; low efficiency of technical inspection of environmental performances of motor vehicles in use; lower stability of СО and VOC content in exhaust gases of Russian motor vehicles according to growth of their mileage. As an example in the Table 1 there are presented average values of specific emissions from motor vehicles of pre-EURO class in accordance with CORINAIR and NIIAT Methods. In view of the above the Russian Methods for calculation of road transport emissions in biggest cities on the one hand is fully harmonized with the European EMEP/CORINAIR Methods but on the other hand differs from it by: more differentiated classification of urban traffic conditions; more differentiated categories of motor vehicles under review ; taking into account of specific emission indices for the Russian motor vehicles of pre-Euro, Euro-1 and 2 environmental classes. Vadim Donchenko, Yuli Kunin, Andrei Ruzski, Vladimir Vizhenski /Transport Research Arena 2014, Paris Table 1. Specific emissions indices used in CORINAIR and NIIAT Methods (example) Specific emissions, g/km Motor vehicle type CO VOC NOx NIIAT CORINAIR NIIAT CORINAIR NIIAT CORINAIR Car (gasoline) 19,8 8,22 3,6 1,33 1,4 1,9 Truck with total mass less than 3500 kg (gasoline) 26,8 13,5 3,9 1,69 2,7 2,44 Truck with total mass more than 3500 kg (diesel) 3,0 3,54 1,6 3,51 8,7 4,18 As opposed to the CORINAIR Methods where emissions are evaluated by three characteristic traffic conditions – urban traffic , suburban traffic and highway traffic, the NIIAT Methods for traffic conditions typical for Moscow and other biggest cities considers 5 levels of scale for running emissions indices according to traffic conditions: I.П I.МП II III IV trunk roads with controlled traffic and arterial urban streets of city-wide importance with controlled traffic, arterial urban streets of city-wide importance with uninterrupted traffic and motorways and also district-level streets during rush-hours at traffic speed of Vc≤ 15 km/h; trunk roads with controlled traffic and arterial urban streets of city-wide importance with controlled traffic between rush-hours at traffic speed of Vc>15 km/h; district-level streets between rush-hours at traffic speed of Vc>15 км/ч, local streets and roads; arterial urban streets of city-wide importance with uninterrupted traffic at Vc> 15 km/h; motorways at Vc > 15 km/h. The large-scale block diagram of the calculation model for estimation of emissions used in the NIIAT's updated Methods is shown in Fig.2. The model includes three calculation units: calculation of mass emissions from moving motor vehicle (the so-called «hot emissions»); calculation of mass emissions during engine start-up and warm-up («cold» emissions); calculation of mass emissions due to fuel evaporation. Specific road transport emissions data base Running pollutant Пробеговые выбросы emissions preset motor ЗВ для for расч. типов vehicle types АТС Pollutant ЗВ emissions from Выбросы на участках running on road УДСtraffic при streams движении network segments трансп. потоков Traffic congestion Интенсивность structure in road иand состав трансп. network потока на УДС pollutant Уд.Specific выбросы ЗВ при emissions ICE startпусках from и прогреве up and warm-up ДВС Pollutant emissions Выбросы ЗВ в from ICE warm-up местах стоянкиon parking lots при прогреве ДВС Category and Категория и road congestion уровень level загрузки дорог Distance travelled Пробег (длина (road network участка УДС) segment length) Specific pollutant Уд. выбросы ЗВ в emissions due to результате evaporation испарения Pollutant emissions Выбросы ЗВ due в to fuel evaporation on результате испарения parking lots топлива в местах стоянки Computationпериод period Расчетный (24 hours, month, (сутки, месяц, quarter, year) квартал, год) Aggregate Суммарные pollutantЗВ выбросы emissions Climatic Климатические characteristics характеристики Baseline data characterizing district and region obtained from investigation Fig. 2 Block diagram of computational model for pollutant emissions evaluation Fuel quality Качество топлива (экологический (ecological class) класс) Vadim Donchenko, Yuli Kunin, Andrei Ruzski, Vladimir Vizhenski /Transport Research Arena 2014, Paris The pollutant emissions from motor vehicles are also influenced by the type and quality of fuel used. The regulations with stricter requirements to motor vehicle exhaust emissions and engine fuel quality adopted in Russia in 2005-2008 accelerated the process of upgrading the fleet by vehicles with higher environmental performances. Now the Russian fuel market offers gasoline and diesel fuel of Euro-3, -4, and -5 classes. In this connection in NIIAT updated Methods in 2013 it was included calculation unit which takes account of the effect of the used fuel quality on emissions. To obtain correction factors for NMVOC and non-rated pollutants specific (running) emission indices for motor vehicles with gasoline engines there were used equations obtained within the European program on emissions, fuels and engine design (EPEFE) (ACEA and Europe, 1996) and Russian gasoline quality performances for different environmental classes (Table 2). In the Methods the effect of diesel oil environmental class was taken into account regarding sulfur dioxide emission. With respect to other substances in exhaust gases (CO, VOC, PM, etc.) correction of specific (running) emission indices was abandoned due to insignificant changes in their concentration in exhaust gases emissions (below 5%). Table 2. Correction factors used to take account of gasoline class effect on specific NMVOC and non-rated pollutant emissions Environmental motor vehicle class Class 2 Gasoline class according to the Russian regulations Class 3 Class 4 Class 5 Euro-0-2 Euro-3 Euro-4 1.0 1.110 1.168 0.901 1.0 1.053 0.856 0.950 1.0 0.847 0.940 0.989 Euro-5 1.181 1.064 1.011 1.0 3. The main results of the study The important objective of the work was comparison of results of emissions calculation carried out by the use of updated NIIAT Methods and CORINAIR Methods. To make such a comparison there was performed field study of the traffic flow volume, its structure and traffic conditions at different time of the day on Volokolamsk Highway in Moscow which is a typical city exit (outgoing) motorway with combined traffic conditions. Results of calculation of some pollutants emission with the use of two approaches are shown in Table 3. Table 3. Results of the test pollutant emissions calculation with the use of NIIAT and CORINAR Methods Emissions, kg/day CO NOx VOC NMVOC PM NIIAT 3,761 415 356 350 4.49 CORINAIR 2,566 489 230 224 5.16 As it`s possible to see from the Table calculations made with the use of these Methods did not produce identically equal results. The NIIAT and CORINAIR Methods displayed appreciable differences in estimation of emissions of СО and volatile organic compounds (VOC, NMVOC and a group of unconventional substances) and produced similar results relating to NOx (calculated on NO2 basis), РМ and a number of other substances. It may be explained by a higher share in the traffic flow as compared to European countries of motor vehicles with poor environmental performances which have no catalytic systems or are fitted with inadequately efficient catalytic systems. For verification of the Methods there was used the approach which based on comparison between ratios of calculated emissions of various substances and measured concentrations of these substances in ambient air in the roadside areas. Such comparison may not serve to be the grounds for conclusion relating to accuracy of quantitative estimates obtained by the use of each Methods. But it enables qualitative comparison between various Methods to be made. To compare between concentration ratios of any substances in atmosphere in roadside areas and ratios of the substance emissions the following conditions are to be met: monitoring of concentrations in ambient air of compared pairs of substances is to be reliable and long enough; background concentrations of these substances typical of the city are to be known; Vadim Donchenko, Yuli Kunin, Andrei Ruzski, Vladimir Vizhenski /Transport Research Arena 2014, Paris assurance is required that emissions from motor vehicles form concentrations in ambient air of considered substances on roadside areas. In Moscow there are a few automated atmosphere pollution monitoring stations which are located near to motorways and meet the above-mentioned conditions. Content of pollutants in ambient air is measured on the year-round basis each 20 seconds. Total number of measurements per year exceeds 20,000. For comparative evaluation of the Methods under study we have taken the СО/NOx concentration ratio. This particular ratio of substances in ambient air and road transport emissions meets the said conditions most of all. First automated atmosphere pollution monitoring stations exercise long monitoring of СО, NO and NO2 both in the roadside area and in the background monitoring station. Secondly these are motor vehicles which form concentrations of these substances near to major motorways. In the NIIAT and CORINAIR Methods the values of nitrogen oxides emissions are taken as an aggregate of NO х calculated on NO2 basis. The ratios of CO/NOx concentrations were computed with consideration given to the urban background of the said substances: CO/NOx = (СОi – COФ)/(NOxi – NОxФ) where: СОi, NOxi COФ, NОxФ (3), measured concentrations of carbon oxide and nitrogen oxides on i-th station, mg/m3; background concentrations of carbon oxide and nitrogen oxides on the background station (MSU), mg/m3. For motorway sections located in vicinity of the foregoing automated atmosphere pollution monitoring stations there were determined average annual concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides in 2012 which are shown in Table 4. Table 4. Average annual concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides in atmosphere in 2012 Station СО, mg/m3 NO, mg/m3 NO2, mg/m3 NOx, mg/m3 MSU 0.26±0.003* 0.013±0.0003 0.041±0.00025 0.062±0.00081 0.69±0.006 0.061±0.0006 0.028±0.00013 0.121±0.0010 Veshnyaki 0.51±0.0048 0.026±0.0006 0.045±0.00024 0.085±0.0011 Kozhukhovski Lane 0.95±0.0082 0.060±0.0007 0.039±0.00024 0.131±0.0015 Moscow Automobile and Road Construction Institute (MADI) * confidence interval at reliability level 0.95 Means of ratios of average annual CO/NOx concentrations with the exception of background concentration are given in Table 5. For the same road segments there were calculated pollutant emissions using the Methods in question. Ratio between concentrations in ambient air on roadside areas and СО/NOx emissions are shown in Fig. 3. The picture shows that CO/NOX ratio for emissions calculated by the use of NIIAT Methods is closer to the ratio between real concentrations of these substances in atmosphere as compared to calculations using CORINAIR Methods. Table 5. Mean of average annual concentrations and concentration ratios of carbon oxide and nitrogen oxides in ambient air (СОst-СОb)/(NОxst-NОxb) Station MADI (СОst-СОb), mg/m3 (NОxst-NОxb), mg/m3 0.43±0.0057 0.059±0.00084 7.3±0.1 Veshnyaki 0.25±0.0050 0.023±0.00091 10.9±0.2 Kozhukhovski Lane 0.69±0.0081 0.069±0.0013 10.0±0.1 Vadim Donchenko, Yuli Kunin, Andrei Ruzski, Vladimir Vizhenski /Transport Research Arena 2014, Paris 12 Движение по улицам и дорогам II Traffic on streets and roads of Category категории (ст. Вешняки) II (Veshnyaki station) values Отношение величин выбросов. НИИАТ Ratio between Отношение величинemission выбросов. CORINAR values Смешанный режим движения (ст. МАДИ) Combined traffic (MADI station) Ratio between emission values, NIIAT Отношение концентраций Ratio between concentrations Отношение величин выбросов. НИИАТ Ratio between Отношение величинemission выбросов. CORINAR 0 Ratio between concentrations Отношение концентраций 2 values 4 Ratio between Отношение величинemission выбросов. CORINAR Ratio betweenвеличин emission values, NIIAT Отношение выбросов. НИИАТ 6 Ratio Отношение between concentrations концентраций (СО-СОф)/(Nox-NОxф) 8 Ratio between emission values, NIIAT 10 Traffic on streets and roads of Category Движение по улицам и дорогам II категории (ст. Кожухорский (Kozhukhovski Laneпроезд) station) II Fig.3. Ratio of СО/NOx concentrations in air on roadside areas and calculated values of their emissions Except this for Volokolamsk Highway section studied before pollutant emissions were calculated at different time of the day (Table 6). Average values of CO/NOx concentrations in ambient air during each hour have been calculated using the data from MADI monitoring station in 2012. Number of in field studies pair for each hour during a year reaches 1,000. Diurnal changes in CO/NOx emissions and their concentrations in ambient air are shown in Figure 4. Table 6. СО and NOx emissions from motor vehicles on Volokolamsk Highway at different time of the day calculated by the use of NIIAT and CORINAIR Methods Time of day СО emissions, kg/period NOx emissions, kg/period NIIAT NIIAT CORINAIR CORINAIR Ratio between CO/NOx emissions NIIAT CORINAIR 0 - 6 a.m. 173 81 41 39 4.21 2.09 6 - 12 a.m. 1,201 839 132 159 9.12 5.29 12 - 18 p.m. 1,133 779 125 149 9.06 5.22 18 - 24 p.m. 1,254 865 115 137 10.88 6.29 These comparisons give the possibility to conclude that NIIAT Methods for calculation of carbon monoxide emission under real traffic conditions in Moscow provides for more correct results as compared to CORINAIR Methods. Similar verification with regard to other pollutants (VOC, NMVOC and non-rated pollutants) which had shown slight differences in calculation by the use of these Methods (Table 3) is not possible for the time being due to absence of information about background concentrations of these pollutants in atmosphere and availability of other more powerful sources of such emissions in addition to road transport. Vadim Donchenko, Yuli Kunin, Andrei Ruzski, Vladimir Vizhenski /Transport Research Arena 2014, Paris 11 Отношение концентраций СО/NОx на станции МАДИ после вычета фоновых концентраций Ratio between СО/NOx concentrations on MADI station less background concentrations Отошение CO/NОx в выбросах. НИИАТ CO/NOx ration in emissions, NIIAT Отошение CO/NОx в выбросах.CORINAIR CORINAIR CO/NOx ration in emissions, 10 9 (СО-СОф)/(Nox-NОxф) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Время Fig.4. Diurnal behaviour of ratios СО/NOx emissions and air concentrations Nowadays the existing Methods is used for evaluation of efficiency of the measures to be taken to enhance environmental safety of road transport in Moscow (switch of motor vehicles to gas fuel, control of fuel quality on the market, various restrictions imposed on traffic of selected categories of motor vehicles etc.). Application of the Methods may be illustrated by estimation of changes in “environmental danger” of traffic flow composed from cars with gasoline engines for last 10 years. traffic conditions on urban roads and streets of various categories; motor vehicles environmental classification; structure of engine fuel market by environmental classes. In the Table 7 there are shown the starting conditions for calculations. Table 7. Starting conditions for calculations Parameter Traffic conditions Preconditions 5 levels according to NIIAT Methods (I.П, I.МП, II, III, IV) Length of each predetermined segment Traffic flow volume Traffic flow structure Fuel quality 1 km 1,000 vehicles/hour Motor cars with gasoline engines of 1.4-2.0 l Environmental class of gasoline corresponds to environmental class of motor vehicle Based on available statistics and study of the motor fleet structure in Moscow in calculation there was used the following distribution of motor cars in traffic flow by their environmental classes in 2002 and 2012 as shown in Fig.5. The results of calculations obtained are shown in Fig.6, 7, 8. Vadim Donchenko, Yuli Kunin, Andrei Ruzski, Vladimir Vizhenski /Transport Research Arena 2014, Paris Структура потока легковых по экологическим классам classes в 2002 г.in и 2002 2012 г., % 2012, % Distribution of motor carsавтомобилей in a traffic stream by their ecological and 80 74 70 year Percent in traffic stream, Доля в транспортном потоке, % % 2002 год 2012 год year 60 50 40 35 33 30 20 11 10 10 8 7 5 10 7 0 Евро-0 Евро-1 Euro Euro Евро-2 Евро-3 Euro 0 0 Евро-4 Евро-5 Euro Euro Экологический класс автомобилей Euro Ecological motor vehicle class Fig.5. Distribution of motor cars in Moscow by their environmental classes in 2002 and 2012 0.7 Year 2002 Year 2012 год Specific nitrogen oxide emissions [g/(km*s)] by a unit motor car stream (1,000 motor cars/hour) Specific carbon mono oxide emissions [g/(km*s)] by a unit motor car stream (1,000 motor cars/hour) 10 8 6 4 2 0 I.П I.МП II III IV Year 2012 Year 2002 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 I.П Categories of urban roads and streets I.МП II III IV Категорииroads городских дорог и улиц Categories of urban and streets Fig.6 Changes in specific carbon mono oxide emissions [g/(km*s)] for a traffic flow of 1,000 motor cars/hour on urban roads and streets of various categories in 2002 and 2012. Fig.7 Changes in specific nitrogen oxides emission [g/(km*s)] for a traffic flow of 1,000 motor cars/hour on urban roads and streets of various categories in 2002 and 2012. Specific sulfur dioxide emissions [g/(km*s)] by a Удельные выбросы диоксида серы потоком легковых unit motor car [г/(км*с)] stream (1,000 motor cars/hour) автомобилей (1000 авт./час) 0.025 2002 year год 2012 year год 2002 2012 0.020 0.015 0.010 0.005 0.000 I.П II I.МП Категории городских дорог roads и улиц Categories of urban III IV and streets Fig 8 Changes in specific sulfur dioxide emissions [g/(km*s)] for a traffic flow of 1,000 motor cars/hour on urban roads and streets of various categories in 2002 and 2012 The results of calculated evaluation of changes in emissions from road transport for the city of Moscow using NIIAT Methods are shown in Fig.9. Also it shows the size of motor vehicle fleet in Moscow in the same period. Motor vehicle fleet, mln. of units Emissions, thou t Motor vehicle fleet, mln. of units Vadim Donchenko, Yuli Kunin, Andrei Ruzski, Vladimir Vizhenski /Transport Research Arena 2014, Paris Emissions, thou t Fig.9 Evolution of pollutant emissions from road transport in Moscow (calculations) 4. Summary There were compared the results of emissions calculation on the base of NIIAT and CORINAIR Methods with the results of field studies. There was found out that NIIAT Methods for calculation of carbon monoxide emissions under real conditions in Moscow provides for more correct results as compared to CORINAIR procedure. Numerical experiments have shown that the NIIAT Methods for calculation of emissions is sensitive to both variations in traffic structure by environmental classes of motor vehicles and changes in traffic speed on urban roads and streets. Estimates made by the use of NIIAT Methods give the possibility to conclude that specific СО, NOx, SO2 emissions from traffic flows (in g/km*s) for the last 10 years dropped 4-5 times due to measures taken by municipal authorities. The NIIAT Methods makes it possible to take into consideration the effect of gasoline quality on emissions of sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and a group of high toxic and carcinogens. Calculations prove that drastic changes in the structure of traffic flows by environmental classes of vehicles and appreciable replacement of old motor fleet with new vehicles compensated adverse effect on ambient air quality in Moscow of motor fleet growth and city transport network overload. As a result growth of traffic congestions in distance and time did not cause significant growth of СО and NOx emissions and concentrations in atmosphere. Quite the opposite since 2005 emissions of these substances from road transport tend to drop while since 2010 total amount of emissions has remained unchanged. 5. References Annual governmental report «On condition and protection of environment in the Russian Federation» in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Guidelines (Methods) for inventory of road transport emissions in the biggest cities, M., NIIAT OJSC, 2006. A.V. Ruzski, Yu.I. Kunin, E.V. Parfenov «Environmental safety of motor vehicles under operation: rates and control», M., «Journal of Automotive Engineers», No 3 (74) 2012. V.V. Donchenko, Yu.I. Kunin, D.M. Kazmin, G.M. Sazonova «Reduction of adverse road transport effect on environment and human health in cities», M., NIIAT OJSC Proceedings, 2010.