Targets 2005 WAP Conservation Action Streams Protect, restore and enhance near-stream and in-stream habitats and processes. Farmland Restore and & manage native Prairies prairie communities and populations of imperiled and extirpated prairie wildlife. Forests Maintain and enhance the composition of Illinois‟ forested habitats. Climate Change Consideration (Walk et al. 2011 update report) Riparian vegetation that shades streams can minimize increases in water temperature; restoring stream habitat and a variety of depth creates microclimate refugia. Not all currently or historically-occupied locations may remain appropriate for imperiled species. Consider maintaining populations based on sustainable, viable population networks and long-term stewardship and monitoring capacity. Efforts to re-establish trees tolerant of more xeric conditions (e.g., oaks and hickories) are especially important, considering that mesophytic species which have increased in recent Who Will Benefit & Where The blacknose dace, southern redbelly dace and smallmouth bass are fishes dependent upon the cool groundwater flowing into the Mackinaw River. Many stream segments lack riparian trees to shade the stream and prevent rapid temperature increases. Sedimentation has filled many deeper water pools. Restoration can reduce erosion, benefit water quality, and enhance the smallmouth bass fishery. Although the ornate box turtle has several small, disjunct populations in the state, these are profoundly isolated by extensive conversion of prairies to cropland. The network of protected sand prairies in NW Illinois’ Mississippi River Sand Area currently hosting robust box turtle populations, with movement possible between populations, likely offers the best chance for long-term persistence. The slender glass lizard and timber rattlesnake are dependent on forest openings with ample sunlight for thermoregulation, and could benefit from the restoration of open oak woodlands. They also rely on rocky outcrops for hibernacula - features common in the Shawnee Hills of southern Illinois and unglaciated Driftless Area in the Wetlands Construct and restore wetlands to provide additional wildlife habitat and improve water quality. Green Cities Minimize the adverse effects associated with development on wildlife and habitats, and integrate wildlife and habitat conservation in developed areas, as possible or appropriate. decades (e.g., sugar maple) may not be able to tolerate conditions in Illinois by mid-century Since more precipitation and high rainfall events are anticipated, engineering standards for constructed wetlands should be updated to ensure drainage structures and spillways are designed to accommodate greater flows. Green infrastructure that preserves ecological connectivity is designed to help slow or absorb run-off from more frequent highrainfall events and will be increasingly important. Urban residents are likely to experience the most lethal effects of climate change during heat waves, and Increasing tree cover in can help moderate temperatures. northwest corner of the state. Choose oak opening restoration sites in places where rocky outcrops also occur. Most natural wetlands have been lost to drainage and development in the Northeastern Moraine Area near Chicago. Maintaining the hydrology of constructed and restored wetlands in spite of changes in precipitation patterns will be essential for conservation of marsh-nesting birds like king rails, common moorhens, and marsh wrens, and the wetlands’ proper functioning to improve water quality and store flood waters. Many species of wildlife have adapted to living in developed areas near people. One surprising discovery has been the prevalence of Franklin’s ground squirrels in ‘rails to trails’ sites in several communities in the Grand Prairie region of central Illinois. Developed as an amenity for people, in part to reduce travel-related green house gas emissions, these trails provide a refugia for the squirrels after their shrub-grassland habitat has been virtually eliminated from the surrounding rural areas.