# Subatomic Particles and Elements Notes

```Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements
Date:____________
Section 3: Subatomic Particles and Element - Notes
Objectives:
 Describe the respective properties and charges of electrons, neutrons, and protons.
 Determine the atomic symbol and atomic number for an element using the periodic table.
Protons:
 Proton: a ______________________________________________ subatomic particle (p)

o
Located in the __________________________
o
1 proton has a charge of ________
o
Actual Mass = ________________________________
o
Relative Mass = ________________________________
Elements are defined by their numbers of _______________________.
o
If an atom had a __________________________ number of protons, it would be a
__________________________ element.

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is its __________________________________
and is given the symbol ______.

o
Hydrogen always has ______ proton
o
Carbon always has ______ protons
How many protons are in:
o
o
Argon?
Plutonium?
Electrons:

Electron: a ______________________________________________ subatomic particle (e-)
o
Located in the _____________________________________________ the nucleus
o
1 electron has a charge of _______
o
Actual Mass = ___________________________
o
Relative Mass = ___________________________


About _______________ of the mass of a proton (small enough to be negligible)
In a neutral atom, the number of electrons is ______________________ the number of protons.

o
Hydrogen has _____ electron
o
Carbon has _____ electrons
How many electrons are in?
o
Argon?
o
Plutonium?
Neutrons:


Neutron: a subatomic particle that has ________________________ (n)
o
Located in the __________________________
o
Actual Mass = ______________________________
o
Relative Mass = _______________________________
The number of neutrons in an atom can _______________.
Electrical Charge:

________________________________________ is a fundamental
property of protons and electrons.
o
Positive and negative electrical charges _________________
each other.
o
Positive–positive and negative–negative charges
_________________ each other.
o
Positive and negative charges ________________ each other
so that a proton and an electron, when paired, are charge-neutral.

Matter normally has a ________________________________________
o
equal numbers of positive and negative charges that _____________________________

In an electrical storm, the charge balance of matter is __________________________________.

The quick rebalancing of charge often occurs in dramatic ways, such as is seen in
________________________.
Elements:

It is the number of ___________________________ in the nucleus of an atom that identifies the
atom as a particular _______________________________.

The periodic table of the elements lists all known elements according to their
_____________________________.

Most chemical symbols are based on the _______________________________ of the element.
o


Hydrogen (_____), Carbon (_____), Oxygen (_____)
Some symbols are based on ________________________________________.
o
Potassium (_____) – from the Latin ________________
o
Sodium (_____) – from the Latin ________________
Additional elements with symbols based on their ___________________________________
names include the following:
o
lead (_____), mercury (_____), iron (_____), silver (_____), tin (_____), copper (______)

Early scientists gave newly discovered elements names that reflected their _________________

Other elements were named after _______________________

Other elements were named after ______________________.

List the atomic symbol and atomic number for each element.
o
Silicon
o
Potassium
o
Gold
o
Antimony
```