S11-64-H2OPOWER - College of Engineering | SIU

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S11-64-H2OPOWER
Saluki Engineering Company
Proposal
Submitted 4/21/11
600 E Campus Dr. Apt 2C
Carbondale, IL 62901
April 21, 2011
Dr. Alan Weston
Southern Illinois University
College of Engineering – Mailcode 6603
Carbondale, IL 62901-6604
Dear Dr. Weston,
On behalf of Team H2O Power, I would like to thank you for the opportunity to bid on
this project. The attached proposal was prepared in response to your request for proposal.
The content of the proposal outlines a system for creating electricity from rain and using
it to power a retrofittable cooling system that will increase the efficiency of the existing air
conditioning unit.
The proposed system has collection, power generation, geothermal, and heat exchanger
subsystems. The cost of the system was estimated to be $1213.47. The proposed system will
have a payback period of five to ten years. If you have any questions or concerns, feel free to
contact me with the information given below.
Sincerely,
Matthew Covington
Project Manager
[email protected]
217-820-1752
Saluki Engineering Company
Proposal
Submitted 4/21/11
SEC Ref #: S11-64-H2OPOWER
Faculty Advisor: James Mathias
Team Members:
Matthew Behnke
Matthew Covington (Project Manager)
Keith Gonshorek
Shane Murphy
Eric Packard
Zac Prunty
Abstract
The purpose of this project is to design a rain-water powered retrofittable heat exchanger
system for a residential use. This system will improve the efficiency of an air conditioner by
using cool water as an additional heat exchanger at the condenser of the unit to further lower the
temperature of the refrigerant, reducing the overall energy usage required by the compressor.
This process will supplement the pre-existing cooling of the refrigerant after it compresses. The
proposed system is made up of several subsystems including funneling, filtration, power
generation, geothermal, and a heat exchanger.
Rain is initially collected from the roof of a building by the funneling system that uses the
residential rain gutter to move the rain into a vertical collection pipe. The pipe will be made out
of 4in. diameter PVC pipe. A gauge or sensor will be installed to trigger the release of the water
in the pipe when it reaches a certain level. The rain will proceed through a turbine that will
generate power to charge a battery. The turbine will be designed starting in the first week in the
fall semester. The turbine is going to be constructed for this project to test the feasibility of
power generation and will be used as a demonstration. Water from the turbine will then flow to
an underground storage tank that will allow the water to cool. A circulation pump that will be
powered by the battery will pump the cooled water through the retrofitted air conditioning unit’s
condenser. The modified design for the condenser will utilize a heat exchanger providing
additional cooling of the refrigerant. The water will then flow from the condenser back to the
underground storage tank to cool off before looping back through the condenser. The additional
cooling provided to the refrigerant will reduce the power consumption of the air conditioning
unit.
The geothermal and heat exchanger subsystems will be designed, but won’t be
constructed due to the high cost of parts and time constraints. Analysis of heat transfer will be
calculated for the underground storage tank and for the redesigned condenser. Also, power
generation will be calculated for the turbine based on testing. The results will be used to support
the theoretical required power usage of the pump. The reduced energy demand for the air
conditioner will produce savings that will offset the cost of this project. The goal is to have a
payback period of 5 to 10 years.
Non-Disclosure Agreement
The information provided in or for this proposal is the confidential, proprietary property
of the Saluki Engineering Company of Carbondale, Illinois, USA. Such information may be
used solely by the party to whom this proposal has been submitted by Saluki Engineering
Company and solely for the purpose of evaluating this proposal. The submittal of this proposal
confers no right in, or license to use, or right to disclose to others for any purpose, the subject
matter, or such information and data, nor confers the right to reproduce, or offer such
information for sale. All drawings, specifications, and other writings supplied with this proposal
are to be returned to Saluki Engineering Company promptly upon request. The use of this
information, other than for the purpose of evaluating this proposal, is subject to the terms of an
agreement under which services are to be performed pursuant to this proposal.
Table of Contents
Introduction (EP)……...……………………………………………………………..……………1
Literature Review………………………………………………………………………………….2
Collection Systems (ZP, SM)...…………………………………………………………...3
Power Generation (KG, MC)…..………………………………………………………….5
Reuse of Water (MB, EP)………...……………………………………………………….9
Project Description (KG)…………………..…………………………………….………………19
Specifications (EP, ZP, SM)……………….…………………………………………………….22
Design Basis (SM, ZP)……………………...…………………………………………………...24
Subsystems……………………………………………………………………………………….25
Funneling (MC, EP) …………………...………………………………………………...25
Filtration (MB, MC)…………………….…………………………………………….....25
Power Generation (KG)…………………..……………………………………………...25
Geothermal (SM)…………………………..…………….………………………………26
Heat Exchanger (ZP)…………………………………………..…………………………26
Organization Chart (SM)……………………………..………………………………………….27
Action Item List (MC)…………………………………..……………………………………….27
Team Timeline (ZP)………………………………………………………………..…………….28
Resources Required (EP)………………………………………………………………………...29
Scope of Work (MB)...…………………………………………………………………………..29
Appendix…………………………………………………………………………………………35
Correspondence…………………………………………………………………………………..43
List of Figures and Tables
Figure 1…………………………………………………………………………………………..11
Figure 2…………………………………………………………………………………………..12
Figure 3…………………………………………………………………………………………..13
Figure 4…………………………………………………………………………………………..13
Figure 5…………………………………………………………………………………………..14
Figure 6…………………………………………………………………………………………..14
Figure 7…………………………………………………………………………………………..15
Figure 8…………………………………………………………………………………………..15
Figure 9…………………………………………………………………………………………..16
Figure 10…………………………………………………………………………………………16
Figure 11…………………………………………………………………………………………18
Figure 12…………………………………………………………………………………………19
Table 1…………………………………………………………………………………………..11
Table 2…………………………………………………………………………………………..12
Table 3…………………………………………………………………………………………..17
Table 4…………………………………………………………………………………………...24
Table 5…………………………………………………………………………………………...29
Introduction
Currently, 80% of energy comes from non-renewable sources such as fossil fuels and
nuclear power. With the amount of fossil fuels decreasing and the safety risks of nuclear power
becoming a reality, people are looking now towards cleaner and safer forms of energy. Wind
power, hydro power from rivers, and solar power are all examples of renewable energy sources
in use today. However, another source that has not been tapped into is rain.
The focus of this project is to harness the potential energy from rain and convert it to
electrical energy in order to decrease the power that will be consumed from the grid by a preexisting air conditioning system. Air conditioners are known to consume a large amount of
power because they must compress refrigerant from lower to higher pressures in order to
facilitate heat transfer from the house to the surroundings. The coefficient of performance of an
air conditioning system is given as a ratio of the heat taken from the inside of the house to the
work needed by the compressor to transfer the heat (Qin/Win). If the refrigerant is cooled to a
lower temperature in the condenser coils, then more heat can be taken out of the house by the
evaporator coils. This will allow the compressor to pressurize the refrigerant at lower pressure
which will decrease the power consumed by the compressor. This system uses the flow of
geothermally cooled rainwater to reduce the temperature of the refrigerant in the condenser,
thereby increasing the efficiency of the air conditioning system as a whole. Power required by
external electric components will be supplemented by a hydro-electric turbine which will be
driven by the flow of rainwater. Rainwater that will enter the turbine will be stored temporarily
in a downspout connected to the roof.
This project demonstrates the feasibility of using natural sources to improve existing
systems. If it is possible to demonstrate how the Earth’s natural resources could be used to
decrease the amount of non-renewable energy needed to run household appliances, it would be a
step forward in the progression of green technology.
1
Literature Review
Renewable energy is energy that is created by utilizing any natural resource that is easily
and frequently replenished. Currently, renewable energy is used as an alternative to nonreplenishable methods such as coal or oil. Last year renewable energy production accounted for
nearly 20 % of the total energy consumption across the planet. Thirteen percent came from
biomass, or the production of energy from the use of wood, waste, hydrogen gas, and alcoholbased fuels. Three percent came from hydroelectric power such as dams and other current water
propelled systems. The remainder can be attributed to other smaller yet vastly growing sources
such as, solar power, geothermal, and biofuels [12]. With such a wide variety of renewable
energy systems and sources, many often get overlooked. One example of this is hydroelectric
energy. Conventional systems like dams use the potential energy of water to drive a turbine and
generator; however there are also tide and river run hydroelectric energy generation systems.
While all of these sources of energy are essential to furthering the process of using all
environment friendly energy production, some systems have more potential than others. Wind
power is the fastest growing renewable energy source and grows at a rate of 30 % annually, and
while solar energy provides a great potential it only converts 7-8 % of the potential energy that is
provided [12]. A sample calculation was prepared to show the potential amount of electricity that
could be made from rain. The sample building has a roof that is 10,000 ft2 and 100 meters tall.
One inch of rainfall on this roof would be equal to 833 (10,000 ft2*.08333 ft) cubic feet of water,
which is equal to 6230.84 (833 ft3 * 7.48 gal/ft3) gallons. The potential energy of the water
would then be equal to the mass of the water times the height of the building times the
gravitational constant 9.81m/s2. The mass of water equals 23,583.7294 (6230.84 gal* 3.785
2
kg/gal) kilograms. Multiplying these numbers gives us 23,135,638.54 joules of energy. Dividing
this result by 3600 seconds in an hour and again by 1000 equals 6.4266 kilowatt hours.
Rainfall Data
Precipitation data for the United States and across the world shows that there are many
opportunities to use rainfall as a power source. Places like the Pacific Northwest coast, and the
gulf coast of Florida offer the most opportunity with average rainfall above 50” and 45”
respectively [9]. With the whole world in mind this system could be an enormous provider of
electricity. Places like Panama, where average rainfall approaches 100” per year and Columbia,
where their average rainfall is between 200” - 300” per year, are areas where rainfall energy
collection can be maximized [11].
With these averages of rainfall per year and a method to collect it, the potential for
electric production is great. The possibility of supplementing the power supply and being able to
save fossil fuels makes it a great idea for areas with large populations and a lot of rainfall, like
Seattle, Washington and Singapore in Malaysia. This is also a great option for places that cannot
be hooked up to a power grid, like islands in Indonesia, and isolated villages in the Amazon and
Middle American rainforests which average 80 - 200” of rain a year [11]. Table 1 in the
appendix shows the ten highest annual rainfall locations in the continental US and globally.
Collection Systems
In order to harvest energy from rain water, it needs to first be collected. There are many
different methods of catching rainwater that are being used today. Water collection methods
include funneling (gutters, roof design, etc.), holding (tanks, hoppers, reservoirs, etc.), and fog
collection.
3
Funneling and Holding
One of the most generic methods of catching rainwater is the use of a gutter system. Such
systems allow for maximum runoff funneling. Other forms of catchment include rain barrels and
holding tanks. Rain barrels are normally used to collect rain water and then syphoned out for use
in gardening or other outdoor applications. A holding tank is an accumulation device which
stores water until it is needed for other uses. Another potential funneling device is roof design. A
flat roof has more potential to puddle water than a sloped or lofted roof which would affect the
amount of runoff that could be extracted during the period of rainfall. Some situations call for
minimal runoff during the rainfall period such as in large cities and urban areas [7]. Some runoff
minimization methods that have been implemented in the past include green, gravel top, and
other types of substrate roofs. Green roofs consist of a vegetation layer, a substrate layer (where
water is retained and vegetation is anchored), and a drainage layer (to evacuate excess water).
Traditional style roofs are generally covered with a shingle layer and are generally sloped at
angles ranging from 0 to 84° [7]. Figure 1 in the appendix shows that the roof design plays a
major role in the annual runoff. Traditional style roofs have the highest annual run off and
would be most beneficial for a rainwater collection system.
Fog Collectors
Fog collectors are generally utilized in geographical areas that are generally between 600
and 1000m and with high precipitation averages such as the northern coast of Chile [10]. Fog
collectors are used to capture precipitation from the air and funnel it through a series of tubes
which is then distributed to local villages for non-potable use. It is to be noted that these villages
sit at a lower altitude than the collectors; this allows gravity to aid the flow of the collected
water. A typical fog collector is comprised of a large nylon sheet stretched out over a rectangular
frame which has horizontal troughs made of PVC tubing with slits for precipitation runoff. The
4
size of the collector can vary depending on the needed output. An experiment done in El Tofo,
Chile used a 90m2 collector which harvested as high as 4.3 L/m2 per day during the month of
September in 1985. Such systems are relatively cheap to produce. Most systems of this size cost
about $285 [10].
Pipe Corrosion
A problem that could be run into is the issue of acid rain. Normal water has a pH value
around 7-8, whereas rainwater has a pH value of about 5.7 due to the presence of carbonic acid
in the atmosphere [25]. This acidity in rainwater could be a problem for the piping used in this
project, since acidic water could lead to corrosion. To minimize corrosion of pipes and
equipment, utilities add lime to neutralize acidic water. Adding lime to a water supply is not a
permanent solution, as acid rain is caused by many other factors than can be corrected in this
project [24]. However, implementing the addition of lime could minimize the acidity of the
rainwater, and therefore increase the life of the pipes [23]. Another solution could be to use a
non-corrosive pipe, such as PVC.
Power Generation
After water is collected and stored, its potential energy must be converted to electricity.
The way to convert the potential energy from water into electricity is to run it through a turbine
generator. A basic understanding of how a turbine generator works is essential for extracting
energy from rainwater.
Expanders
An expander is a turbine or other system engine through which a pressurized liquid or gas
is forced so that work is produced for use in an alternate application. In the case of gasses,
5
expanders can also extract the work done by the expansion of gas such as in a combustion cycle
in a piston cylinder. Other examples of expanders include gerotor pumps, scroll expanders, radial
turbines, axial turbines, and drag turbines such as the simple water wheel.
In the process of selecting the right type of expander to use for a project involving the
conversion of rain potential energy to electricity or other work, the choice can be narrowed by
exploring the efficient uses of each type of expander. In his 2001 thesis, “Evaluation of
Expanders for use in a Solar-Powered Rankine Cycle Heat Engine”, Jon Johnston provides a
depth of information comparing different types of expanders [4]. For his application, he was
testing the use of these expanders in low to medium temperature organic rankine cycles
operating between 70 - 350°F. As can be seen on the graph provided in the appendix, Figure 3,
the efficiency of several different types of expanders depends on the specific diameter of the pipe
and the specific speed at which the fluid is flowing through the pipe.
From this data, it can be determined that Axial and Radial type turbines may require a
dynamic flow at a greater velocity than could be achieved from accumulated rain. Also, the cost
of these types of expanders would be prohibitive to a smaller scale project because it would
probably not be cost effective to only run it periodically with rainfall. Instead, the graph shows
that at medium diameters and fluid speeds, Drag Turbines and Rotary Piston Expanders may be
more efficient for this type of project [4]. Also, at larger diameters and slower speeds, Piston
Expanders may work as well. The most feasible expander to work with would be the Drag
Turbine. The Drag Turbine is a standard turbine that uses the force of a flowing fluid to generate
work. The most basic example of a Drag Turbine is a water wheel, which has been used for
centuries. The Drag Turbine would be a very good selection for this project because it has been
6
proven to be an effective method for generating work from low temperature liquids, including
water, and would be very adaptable to changes in project constraints.
Example diagrams of each type of expander discussed can be referenced in the Appendix
(Figures 4 -9) and are delineated as follows: Figure 4, the Piston Expander can be used in a
combustion cycle or other type of low velocity, high pressure cycle. The reciprocating piston
turns the crankshaft which generates work. Figure 5, the Rotary Piston Expander has a loose
internal gear that turns about the fixed external gear as the flow of fluid from the intake is
expanded to the outlet. An example of a Rotary Piston Expander is the Wankel engine used in
several Mazda cars [6]. Figure 6 shows a Scroll Pump cycle, which compresses a gas or liquid
when work is imputed, however by reversing the process, the fluid would instead be expanded to
generate work. The expander uses a fixed scroll and an orbiting scroll. The orbiting scroll is
moved in a circular motion that allows pockets of the working fluid to expand outward as it
cycles and generates work. Figure 7 and Figure 8, the Radial and Axial Turbines, are both
examples of a high velocity expanders that would have a prohibitive cost for the nature of a
small scale project. The picture for the axial turbine shows the reverse cycle, an axial turbine
engine, where work is an input to compress the working fluid (air) to create thrust instead of
expanding the fluid to generate work. Figure 9, the Drag Turbine, is an example of an expander
that would be an appropriate selection for a small scale rain collection project. The figure shows
a wheel and shaft with exposed blades, however, the wheel and blades may be enclosed to
prevent the working fluid from being leaked from the system. Other examples of Drag Turbines
are windmills, and the common water wheel [4].
7
Pico-hydro Power
Pico-hydro power is the collection of electric power from water flow amounting to less
than 5kW. Generally this form of power production is used from streams or rivers in developing
countries that cannot afford full scale power plants. The amount of electricity that Pico-hydro
power produces is enough to power a television and several light bulbs for approximately 50
households [13].
One of the most efficient turbines for extracting Pico-hydro power is the Pelton turbine,
or impulse turbine. A nozzle takes the water from the collection bin and increases the velocity.
The momentum of the water jet is absorbed by the runner of the turbine, which rotates the
turbine. If the velocity of the water leaving the runner is nearly zero, then almost all of the
kinetic energy of the jet will be transferred into mechanical energy of the turbine, which results
in a higher efficiency. Several developing countries have already implemented Pico-hydro
stations to generate electricity. Kathamba, a small site in Kenya, produces about 1.1kW from a
Pico-hydro plant using a Pelton turbine directly-coupled to an induction generator. The flow rate
into the turbine is 8.4 L/s with a net head of 28m. This plant powers 65 households within a
550m radius, and supplies 230V to each household, enough for two energy saving lamps and a
radio [5].
Piezoelectric Power
Certain crystals have the ability to create electricity when mechanical stress is applied to
them. A few examples include quartz, topaz, sugarcane and tourmaline. Normally a
piezoelectric crystal is electrically neutral. When the crystal is stressed the atomic structure is
deformed, upsetting the balance of charges and creating a voltage. A basic piezoelectric system
has two plates with crystals between them. When pressure is applied to the plates the crystals
deform which creates electricity. A piezoelectric system could be used to generate power from
8
rain drops hitting it. One rain drop can generate anywhere from one microwatt to twelve milliwatts. This small amount of power that is possible to generate isn’t significant enough to be used
for energy extraction from rainfall [2].
Reuse of Water
Evaporative Cooling
Evaporation is a constantly ongoing process. When dry air passes over water, some water
is absorbed by the air. Energy from the air is transferred to the water in order to for a phase
change to take place. Since energy moved from the air to the water, the air is now cooler than it
was before. An evaporative cooler utilizes this principle by drawing hot air in through dampened
pads and then circulating the cooled air with a fan. They are also commonly known as swamp
coolers because they add moisture to the air. The hotter and drier the air is, the more water an
evaporative cooler can absorb. A small, but consistent water source must be supplied to the pads
to keep them damp. Also since water is constantly leaving via evaporation, some kind of valve is
necessary to fill the unit back up with water. Figure 10 in the appendix demonstrates how an
evaporative cooler works. Cooling an area by way of evaporative cooling is generally much
more cost effective than doing so with refrigeration air conditioning. The main disadvantage of
evaporative cooling is that there must be dry air present for it to work well. Evaporative coolers
are most commonly used to cool homes in place of air conditioning. Some homes that have
evaporative coolers also have air conditioning units in case the relative humidity rises, making
the swamp cooler less effective [1].
Non-potable Water Use
Collection systems have been implemented in Danish households in order to use the
collected rainwater for non-potable water needs such as toilet flushing, washing machine use,
and garden hose use. Figure 2 in the appendix shows a typical system schematic for rainwater
9
collection. Water is brought into a holding tank from a gutter and it is filtered and pumped
throughout the house for various needs. This system is shown to have a 0.68 replacement ratio
when used for households as shown in Table 2 in the appendix. These collection systems have
an average installation cost, including materials, of about 15,000 DKK or $2800.00 U.S [8].
Previous Attempts at Rainwater Energy Conversion
A senior design group at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana designed a
rainfall energy conversion system. They collected rainfall and sent it through a turbine with an
electric control system. However, the design was extremely basic and there were not very many
calculations reported in the proposal. In their proposal there were several discrepancies,
including; missing/incorrect calculations, no system schematics, and the fact that their design
was very simplistic, given that the turbine was homemade, using measuring cups [3].
10
Appendix
Table 1
HIGHEST ANNUAL RAINFALL AND THEIR AVERAGE HUMIDITIES
1
2
US (lower 48 states)
Mobile
Alabama
Pensacola
Florida
Inches
67
65
Humidity
75.5
74
3
4
New Orleans
West Palm Beach
Louisiana
Florida
64
63
76
72.5
5
6
Lafayette
Baton Rouge
Louisiana
Louisiana
62
62
77
76.1
7
8
Miami
Port Arthur
Florida
Texas
62
61
72
79.1
9
10
Tallahassee
Lake Charles
Florida
Louisiana
61
58
73.5
77
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Globally
Lloró, Colombia
Mawsynram, India
Mt Waialeale, Kauai,
Hawaii, USA
Cherrapunji, India
Debundscha,
Cameroon
Quibdo, Colombia
Bellenden Ker,
Queensland,
Australia
Andagoya, Colombia
Henderson Lake,
British Colombia,
Canada
Crkvica, Bosnia
Inches
523.6
467
460
Humidity
85
78
75
425
405
82
88
354
340
88
73
281
256
90
78
183
70
Table 1 shows the average rainfall and humidity data for the cities with the most annual rainfall in the
continental US and globally.
Figure 1
Figure 1 shows the annual runoff percentage for different roof types [7].
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Figure 2
Figure 2 shows the schematic for a rainwater collection system for non-potable water use [8].
Table 2
Table 2 shows the replacement ratios for different living quarters [8].
12
Figure 3
Figure 3 shows the efficiency map of different expander types [4].
Figure 4
Figure 4 shows a typical piston-cylinder assembly [16].
13
Figure 5
Figure 5 shows a typical gerotor and rotary piston expander assembly [18].
Figure 6
Figure 6 shows an example of a scroll expander [14].
14
Figure 7
Figure 7 shows a typical radial turbine [19].
Figure 8
Figure 8 shows a how a typical axial turbine works [15].
15
Figure 9
Figure 9 shows a typical drag turbine [17].
Figure 10
Figure 10 shows a typical evaporative cooling system [1].
16
Table 3
Table 3 shows comparisons of various water collection systems [20] [21] [22].
17
Figure 11
Collection
Pipe
Turbine
AC
Condenser
Circulation
Pump
Geothermal
Tank
Figure 11 shows a basic schematic of the proposed system
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Project Description
On completion of this project, a prototype of a turbine will be built to demonstrate the
feasibility of using rain water to increase the cost efficiency of running a pre-existing air
conditioning unit. This will be determined by performing a set of experiments on the prototype to
show power generation. This data will then be used to show the potential to power a system to
increase cost reduction of running the air conditioning unit. The success of the project will be
determined by using known costs of running an air conditioning unit as a base comparison to the
cost of running the unit after it has been retrofitted with the new heat exchanger on the
condenser. This project has been divided into six sub-systems and they are described below.
Figure 12
Figure 12 shows the block
diagram of the system
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Funneling
This subsystem will be the initial rain water collection system which will bring all of the
water from the roof of the building to a vertical collection pipe that will run the height of the
building. This pipe will contain the water until the volume of liquid in the pipe reaches a
designated level. From there, the water will be released through the turbine in cycles of this
designated quantity to increase the efficiency of the turbine.
Filtration
This subsystem will be located in conjunction with the funneling subsystem or
immediately after. The main purpose of this subsystem is to reduce the acidity of the rain water,
minimizing the corrosive potential on the rest of the system and to also eliminate debris and
other foreign particles that may impede the system. The acidity must not be too high as it will
cause parts of the system to have a reduced lifespan due to corrosion, however, running slightly
acidic water though the system could help reduce biological organisms such as algae from
growing and clogging it up over time.
Power Generation Subsystem
This subsystem consists of an in-line Pelton-wheel style turbine that will transfer energy
from the flow of water from the funneling subsystem to rotational motion of a shaft. This shaft
will be connected to a DC generator that will charge a rechargeable battery. Due to the
alternating nature of the power produced by the rotating shaft, DC power may either be produced
directly through the procured generator, or a rectifier must be installed to convert the power. In
the system, this power will be used to run the circulation pump subsystem.
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Underground Storage Tank
This subsystem will serve as secondary collection system for the rain water after it has
passed through the power generation subsystem. It consists of a large tank that will be buried
under the frost line to take advantage of the geothermally cool ground condition. At a depth
between 5 – 10 feet, the water in the tank will be able to maintain a temperature of roughly 60°F
all year round. A secondary inlet to the tank will come from the retrofittable heat exchanger
subsystem. The water from this inlet will have higher temperatures. As this warmer water is fed
into the tank, the cooler surroundings will allow the heat to dissipate and the water will cool
down again.
There are two outlets to the tank. The main outlet leads to the circulation pump
subsystem. The second outlet is an overflow valve that will allow water to be diverted from the
tank if it has reached its maximum capacity. The size of the tank will depend on the efficiency of
heat transfer at different masses, cost, and expected rainfall, but the required tank is currently
estimated to be about 900 gallons.
Circulation Pump
This subsystem consists of a water pump that will be powered by the electricity generated
from the power generation subsystem. The main purpose this subsystem is to pump the cooled
water from the underground storage tank back above ground so that it can flow through the
retrofittable heat exchanger subsystem.
Retrofittable Heat Exchanger Subsystem
This subsystem will use water pumped from the underground storage tank by the
circulation pump to cool the condenser on a standard residential air conditioning unit. Normally,
these units use condensers that are cooled by fans using forced convection to cool the refrigerant
21
by passing air over cooling fins of the condenser. By retrofitting this condenser with a new
design and making use of a heat exchanger, the refrigerant running through the condenser can be
cooled by the water from the underground storage tank as well as cooling fins. This added
cooling is expected to increase the amount of heat the refrigerant is able to transfer, and thus,
increase the efficiency of the unit, reducing the electricity consumption of the compressor. After
the water has passed through the retrofitted condenser, it will be returned to the underground
storage tank to be cooled before being pumped back through the condenser. The expected
savings from the increase in efficiency due to this subsystem will offset the cost of this project
and generate future savings.
Specifications


Building
o Region: Florida, United States of America
o General
 2 stories
o Fenestrations
 160 sq. ft. double pane windows with new storm sash
 37.7 sq. ft. entry door with storm doors
o Wooden walls
 4000 sq. ft. 2x6 insulated with R19 fiberglass
o Heated Masonry Walls
 800 sq. ft. 8” concrete block wall foundation
o Ceiling/Attic
 1500 sq. ft. 2x10 ceiling insulated with fiberglass
o Design Temperatures
 Winter indoor = 70°F, coldest 25°F
 Summer indoor = 75°, hottest 105°F
o Cooling load: 2.5 tons of cooling to maintain indoor temperature of 75°F at 105°F
outside (based on www.refined-home.com heat load calculator)
Air Conditioning
o www.ingramsheatingandair.com
o 3 Ton, 16 SEER, Split System A/C 410A with 2 Stage Compressor
o Two-Stage Copeland® UltraTech Scroll compressor
o R-410A Chlorine free refrigerant
o Two-Speed Condenser Fan Motor
22




o Performance Certified in Accordance with the Air Conditioning, Heating, and
Refrigeration Institute (AHRI)
Filtration Subsystem
o Primary Filter – Thermwell 6-Inch x 20-Ft. Plastic Mesh Gutter Guard (6)
o Secondary Filter – 5’’ Wire Mesh Screen Disc
Collection Subsystem
o Holding Pipe – 4’’x20’ PVC Pipe
o Rainwater Release System (To Be Designed)
Power Generation Subsystem
o DC Motor – Electro-Craft 24VDC motor generator
 Body – 6’’ long x 4’’ dia.
 Shaft – 1.25’’ long x 3/8’’ dia.
 2.5VDC/1000RPM
o Turbine (To Be Designed)
o Turbine Enclosure (To Be Designed)
o Battery – Plus Start Car battery, Group Size 75
Geothermal Subsystem
o 900 Gallon Plastic Storage Tank
 www.thetankstore.com
 46’’dia x 132’’H
 16’’ Lid
 2" Female NPT Threaded Outlet Fitting
 1.7 Specific Gravity Rating
o 3’’ x 30’ PVC Pipe
o PVC Pipe Fittings
o Pump
 Little Giant - 3-MDQX-SC Inline Pump
 www.marinedepot.com
 Magnetic Drive
 Salt or Fresh Water
 Motor: 1/30hp
 Voltage: 115V
 Amperage: 1.5A
 Wattage: 96W
 Flow Rates: 770gph @ 1ft head; 640gph @ 3ft head; 370gph @ 6ft head
 Max Head: 8.1ft
 Inlet/Outlet: 1in FNPT / 1in MNPT
 Max PSI: 3.5
 Dimensions (L x W x H): 9.4in x 5.3in x 4in
 Cord Length: 6ft
23
Table 4
SYSTEM
Filter
Collection
Power Generation
Geothermal
ITEM
Primary Filter
Secondary filter
PVC Pipe 4''x20'
Holding Pipe Control
System
DC Motor
Turbine Blade Parts
Turbine Enclosure
Battery
PVC Pipe 3"x30'
900 Gallon Plastic Water
Storage Tank From
Thetankstore.com
PVC Fittings
Condenser
TOTAL COST
COST
$19.74
$1.00
$15.00
$30.00
$60.00
$50.00
$30.00
$70.00
$30.00
$609.91
$7.36
Little Giant - 3-MDQX-SC
Inline Pump from
Marinedepot.com
$150.00
Temperature Sensor
Reclaim Refrigerant
Copper Tubing
$60.00
$45.00
$35.46
$1,213.47
Table 4 shows an itemized cost of the proposed system
Basis for Design
The original basis of the design was to be taken from ASME H2GO student competition
guidelines. However, several modifications to these guidelines had to be made in order to
broaden the project scope. Modifications include changing the amount of input water from 1 liter
to unlimited, water will be used to power a turbine instead of a model vehicle, and input water
height will be changed from 1 meter to unlimited. Listed below is a table of documents for which
the design will be based.
24
Documentation
Request For Proposal (RFP)
ASME H2GO Competition Guidelines
Energy Star Federal Tax Credit for Consumer
Energy Efficiency
NFPA 70: National Electrical Code - Edition:
2011
Date
15 February, 2011
10 February, 2011
16 November, 2010
13 March, 2011
Subsystems
Funneling Subsystem
 Will accumulate the working fluid, rainwater, and funnel it into a holding pipe to be
released when the pipe is full
 In order for the turbine to generate power, a volume of water needs to be collected to
build up enough pressure to spin the turbine effectively
 Elements:
o Gutter
o Downspout (collection pipe)
 Deliverables:
o Schematic of system design
 Use of Microsoft Visio to draw a block diagram
Filtration Subsystem
 Will filter out both large and small debris from the rainwater
 Protects the turbine from being damaged by fragments in the rainwater
 Elements:
o Gutter guard
o Fine particle filter
 Deliverables:
o Specification
 Compare types and prices
Power Generation Subsystem
 Responsible for converting the potential energy of the rainwater into kinetic energy,
which is converted into electric power via turbine
 The power generated by the turbine will be used to supplement the pump which forces
water through the condenser
 Elements:
o Turbine
o Turbine enclosure
25


o DC Motor
o Rechargeable battery
Deliverables:
o Scale turbine prototype
o Schematics of turbine
Activities:
o Use of Autodesk Inventor to model components
o Constructing turbine
Geothermal Subsystem
 Responsible for collecting water after it goes through the turbine and cooling it
 The cooled water will be pumped through the condenser. It is powered by the power
generation subsystem.
 Elements:
o Geothermal tank
o Circulation pump
 Deliverables:
o Specifications for tank size and pump capacity
o Schematic of tank and pump
o Heat transfer calculations
 Activities:
o Use of Microsoft Visio to draw block diagram
o Performing the necessary calculations for tank specifications
o Performing the necessary heat transfer calculations
Heat Exchanger Subsystem
 Will increase the efficiency of existing air conditioning unit
 Uses the cooled water from the geothermal subsystem
 Elements:
o Tube in tube heat exchanger
o Retrofit design
o Enclosure
 Deliverables:
o Air conditioning efficiency calculations
o Schematic
o 3D model
 Activities:
o Perform efficiency calculations
o Perform heat transfer calculations
26
Organization Chart
Action Item List
Project: H2O Power
Action Item List
Team Members:
Matthew Behnke, ME
Matthew Covington, ME (PM)
Keith Gonshorek, ME
Shane Murphy, ME
Eric Packard, ME
Zac Prunty, ME
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
Activity
Gather Materials
Design Turbine #1
Design Turbine Enclosure #1
Design Turbine #2
Design Turbine Enclosure #2
Design Condenser Modifications
Person(s) Assigned
MB, MC
23-Aug
KG
23-Aug
SM
23-Aug
ZP
23-Aug
EP
23-Aug
MB, MC
30-Aug
Due
30-Aug
6-Sep
6-Sep
6-Sep
6-Sep
13-Sep
Comments
27
Team Timeline
Design Activities
Week
1
Week
2
Week
3
Week
4
Week
5
Week
6
Week
7
Week
8
Week
9
Week
10
Week
11
Week
12
Week
13
Week
14
Gather components
& tools
Design turbine
(CAD)
Design turbine
enclosure (CAD)
Design condenser
modifications (CAD)
Build turbine
prototype 1
Test turbine
assembly
functionality
Experiment 1:
Power production
from turbine and
optimization
Break Week
Build turbine
enclosure
Final modification
(if needed)
Draft design report
Draft final
presentation
Design report
submitted
Demonstration
Final presentation
28
Week
15
Week
16
Resources Required
Table 5
Material
PVC piping
connector
DC Motor
Turbine blade material
Turbine enclosure material
joint compound
Misc. hardware
multimeter
buckets
water
Quantity
1
1
1
1
1
2
Cost each
$20.80
$2.78
$50.00
$30.00
$43.50
$7.49
$10.00
on hand
on hand
on hand
Tools
blowtorch
band saw
riveter
drill press
on hand
on hand
on hand
on hand
Software
Microsoft Word
Microsoft PowerPoint
Microsoft Visio
Autodesk Inventor
ACCA Manual J
HTRI Xchanger Suite
on hand
on hand
on hand
on hand
on hand
on hand
Total:
Total Cost
$20.80
$2.78
$50.00
$30.00
$43.50
$14.98
$10.00
$172.06
Table 5 shows itemized costs of the model that will be built
Scope of Work
Physical test trials of the turbine







Run 3 trials using different amounts of water at a time for comparison (e.g. - 5 gallons, 10
gallons, 20 gallons)
Use multimeter to record the power being generated for all trials
Analyze data for optimization and recommendations for future prototypes
(Optional) Test how much power a chosen battery is able to absorb by testing the output
of the batter after using the turbine to charge the battery
Demonstrate that the power is sufficient to use to power the water pump
Analyze heat transfer in the heat exchanger retrofit
Create table to show the differences in heat transfer depending on the weather (e.g. – the
difference between the temperature of the water and the temperature of the refrigerant)
29

Analyze how the reduction in refrigerant temperature at the condenser reduces the energy
consumption of the compressor
Show effectiveness of cooling the condenser

If there is a ‘tube in tube’ design, it might be possible to calculate the combined cooling
of the refrigerant from both condenser fins and the coolant water.
Calculate the heat transfer in the geothermal tank

Determine how long it will take to cool the water down
Deliverables







An interconnected gutter system that will channel collected rain flow into a single outlet
pipe
A turbine that will use the channeled rain flow to create electricity to charge a battery
responsible for powering the systems pump
An underground geothermal tank to collect the used rain water and keep it at a relatively
stable temperature
A pump to get the water from the tank to the A/C unit
A retrofit condenser for the A/C unit which will use the water from the geothermal tank
to help cool the condenser and reduce the amount of work and energy required to run the
compressor.
See figures 11 and 12 for a block diagram and general drawing, respectively of the
system
A detailed Technical Manual and Users Guide will be provided for proper installation
process, software implementation, and proper system functionality
Subsystem Technical Description



The gutter system will line all of the edges of the roof for maximum rain collection. Each
of the gutters will run into their neighboring gutters and allow rain water to flow to the
one corner of the roof where we have designated an outlet pipe to flow down towards the
turbine. See Figure 11
The filtration system consists of two separate filters. One filter, attached to the roof
gutter, will catch larger substances (leaves, sticks, etc.). The second filter will be between
the gutters and the holding tank, and will be made of a fine mesh screen to filter out any
smaller particulates.
The turbine will be at ground level for easy access should maintenance be required. The
rain water will flow through the outlet pipe and into the turbine, where it will turn the
blades and create power via the drive of a DC motor. The electricity that is produced
here will be used to charge a battery that will be used to power the pump. To show the
proof of concept for the conversion of potential energy of rain to electricity, an in-line
waterwheel turbine will be built and demonstrated. Proof of concept will be shown by a
30


scale model that will measure the amount of current produced by the turbine motor when
a typical rainfall volume runs through the system. Current will be measured using a
standard multimeter. The measured current will allow for the calculation of the total
power generated by the turbine. The power generated will be compared to typical water
pump power consumption in order to demonstrate how the turbine can be used to reduce
the cost of operating the pump.
The geothermal tank will be several feet underground. The water will flow from the
turbine down into the tank. Here it will rest until needed, acclimating to the stable
underground temperature. From here a pump will push the water up through our
modified condenser.
The retrofitted condenser is essentially just made so that we will run the water from the
geothermal tank up through the condenser helping with the expulsion of heat from the
system and lessening the work required of the compressor. After the water has been used
here it will be circulated back to the geothermal tank where it can once again acclimate to
the stable underground temperature. Once there is too much water in the tank we will
have an overflow expulsion system will even out the level of water in the tank should it
get to high.
31
References
[1] California Energy Commission . (2006). Evaporative Cooling. Retrieved March 6, 2011,
from Consumer Energy Center:
www.consumerenergycenter.org/home/heating_cooling/evaporative.html
[2] Chapa, J. (2008, January 30). Alternative Energy: Rain Power. Retrieved March 6, 2011,
from Inhabitat: http://inhabitat.com/alternative-energy-rain-power/
[3] E. Luz, B. G. (2004, June 17). Senior Design Project Proposal. Retrieved February 24, 2011,
from Rainfall Powered Battery Charger:
http://courses.engr.illinois.edu/ece445/projects/summer04/project2_proposal.doc
[4] Johnston, J. (2001). Thesis: EVALUATION OF EXPANDERS FOR USE IN A SOLARPOWERED RANKINE CYCLE HEAT ENGINE. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State
University.
[5] Maher, P. (2002, January 17). Community Pico Hydro in Sub-Sahara Africa: Case Study 1.
Retrieved March 6, 2011, from Micro Hydro Centre:
www.eee.nottingham.ac.uk/picohydro/docs/kenyacasestudy1_1.pdf
[6] Mazda Motor Corporation. (2011). What is a Rotary Engine? Retrieved March 7, 2011, from
Mazda: http://www.mazda.com/mazdaspirit/rotary/about/
[7] Mentens, J., Raes, D., Hermy, M. Green roofs as a tool for solving the rainwater runoff
problem in the urbanized 21st century? Landscape and Urban Planning. 77, (217-226),
2006
[8] Mikkelsen, P., Adeler, O., Albrechtsen, H., Henze, M. Collected rainfall as a water source in
Danish households – What is the potential and what are the costs? Wat. Sci. Tech. 39-5,
1999
[9] Rainfall Statistics. (2009). Retrieved March 7, 2011, from NOAA: www.noaa.com
[10] Schemenauer, R., Fuenzalida, H., Cereceda, P. A neglected water resource: The
Camanchaca of South America. American Meteorological Society. 69-2, 1988
[11] Top 10 Highest Rainfall Accumulations. (2010). Retrieved March 7, 2011, from World
Almanac: www.worldalmanac.com
[12] Tossi, R. (2009). Energy and the Environment. Los Angeles: VerVe Publishers.
[13] What is Pico Hydro? (2003). Retrieved March 6, 2011, from picohydro.org:
picohydro.org.uk
32
[14] ANEST IWATA Corporation. (2004). ANEST IWATA Corporation. Retrieved March 8,
2011, from Vacuum Pumps: http://www.anestiwata.co.jp/english/products/vacuum/images/v_comp_il01.gif
[15] Emoscopes. (2007, October 10). Blogspot. Retrieved March 8, 2011, from Ultra Efficient
Engines:http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_SzFyeLuqBTA/Rw0NTCIxf9I/AAAAAAAAAJI/uhl4
WCcjwKY/s400/Turbojet_operation-_axial_flow.jpg
[16] Mount Druitt Mechanical Engineering. (2011). Manufacturing, Design, Mechanical
Engineering. Retrieved March 8, 2011, from Free Body
Diagrams: http://www.ejsong.com/mdme/memmods/mem30005a/FBD/images/piston.PN
G
[17] O'Keefe, P. J. (2011, February 20). Engineering Expert Witness Blog. Retrieved March 8,
2011, from http://www.engineeringexpert.net/Engineering-Expert-WitnessBlog/http://www.engineeringexpert.net/web/Engineering-Expert-Witness-Blog/wpcontent/uploads//2011/02/turbine_wheel.jpg
[18] Penton Media, Inc. (2011). Hydraulics & Pneumatics. Retrieved March 8, 2011, from Tech
Zone:http://www.hydraulicspneumatics.com/FPE/images/pumps1_4.gif
[19] Platts, D. A. (2006, May 16). FreePatentsOnline.com. Retrieved March 8, 2011, from
United States Patent 7044718: http://www.freepatentsonline.com/7044718-0-large.jpg
[20] Duraweld Inc. (2003). Retrieved March 26, 2011, from Holding Tanks - Cone Bottom:
http://plasticfabricatedtanks.com/cone.html
[21] Green Buildings. (n.d.). Retrieved March 26, 2011, from Green Roof Cost: What is the Cost
Per Square Meter?: http://www.green-buildings.com/content/78335-green-roof-cost
[22] Jr., D. N. (n.d.). David Ness Jr Construction. Retrieved March 26, 2011, from Roofing
Calculator: http://bostonrubberroofing.com/rubber_roofing_company_calcutator.html
[23] Kahler, Karen. (n.d.). What Is Lime Used for in Water Treatment? Retrieved March 30,
2011, from eHow.com: http://www.ehow.com/facts_5023964_lime-used-watertreatment.html
[24] Stevens, William K. (1989). To Treat the Attack of Acid Rain, Add Limestone to Water and
Wait. Retrieved March 30, 2011, from The New York Times:
http://www.nytimes.com/1989/01/31/science/to-treat-the-attack-of-acid-rain-addlimestone-to-water-and-wait.html
[25] Rubin, Ken. (n.d.). Reply to Ask-An-Earth-Scientist. Retrieved March 30, 2011:
http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/rain-creek-pH.html
[26] Association, N. F. (2011). NFPA Catalog. Retrieved March 13, 2011, from
http://www.nfpa.org/catalog/
33
[27] Engineers, A. S. (2011, Janurary). 2011 ASME Student Design Competition. Retrieved
February 10, 2011, from H2Go: The Untapped Energy Source?:
http://files.asme.org/asmeorg/Events/Contests/DesignContest/22516.pdf
[28] Star, E. (2010, November 16). Federal Tax Credits for Energy Efficiency. Retrieved March
25, 2011, from 2011 Federal Tax Credits for Consumer Energy Efficiency:
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=tax_credits.tx_index
[29] Weston, A. (2011, February 15). Request For Proposal. H2OPOWER Request For Proposal.
Carbondale, IL, United States of America.
34
Appendix
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
Correspondence
I HAVE DOUBTS CAN GET ENOUGH CAPACITY FROM THE RAIN WATER FROM A HOUSE
TO COOL THE EXCHANGER BUT IS AN INTERESTING IDEA.
TO DO THE HEAT LOAD YOU ARE CORRECT…NEED EVERYTHING YOU LISTED AND
MORE SUCH AS LOCATION AND INSULATION.
WE PAID FOR A PROGRAM HERE CALLED CARRIER BLOCK LOAD VERSION 4.15 THAT I
MAY BE ABLE TO SEND YOU A COPY BUT IT IS TRICKY TO USE AND IF I FIGURED OUT
HOW TO SEND YOU A COPY YOU WOULD NOT GET ANY TECHNICAL SUPPORT.
A MORE UNIVERSALLY ACCEPTED SOFT WARE IS ACCA MANUAL J.
I BELIEVE THE AIR
CONDITIONING CONTRACTORS OF AMERICA AT ONE TIME HAD A FREE TRIAL VERSION.
IF YOU REALLY GET INTO A BIND I CAN TAKE THE FEW HOURS IT WOULD TAKE TO RUN
IT ON MY SOFT WARE.
C.RENI DEWIT (R.D)
THERMO AIR INC.
2875 N 29 AVE HOLLYWOOD, FL 33020
24 HR: (954) 927-9333
FAX: (954) 923-8003
[email protected]
From: Zachery Prunty [mailto:[email protected]]
Sent: Wednesday, April 06, 2011 3:28 PM
To: RD
Subject: Rainwater Powered Heat Exchanger
RD,
I am working on my senior design project for school and I could use your advice. My team is
designing a rainwater powered retrofittable heat exchanger for a home AC central air unit. We
are in the initial phases of the design process. I was looking online for determining a good AC
unit to use for a building (1500sq ft and 2 stories). The dimensions are arbitrary so that we have a
fixed situation in which we can design around. Apparently the best way to determine what unit to
use is to do a heat load calculation. I'm not very experienced with the steps necessary to find our
heat load. Do you have any suggestions or advice? I'm assuming you would need to know how
many windows, lights, people, etc. are in the building... Feel free to call or email back if you
need any other information.
Thanks!
Zac Prunty
SIUC Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes
p: (309)798-4432
e: [email protected]
43
from
date
subject
Keith Gonshorek [email protected]
Wed, Feb 23, 2011 at 2:18 PM
Senior Design H2OPOWER FTA
Dr. Mathias,
This is just a follow up e-mail about setting up a weekly meeting time for my senior design
group, H2OPOWER, to meet with you. Please let me know if you are able to meet with us on
Thursdays between 1:00 - 2:00pm, pending you don't have a conflicting meeting with Sue. If
this meeting time does not work for you, please let me know and we can set up an alternate time.
Thank you.
-Keith Gonshorek
--------------------------------------------------March 9th, 2011------------------------------------------------from
date
subject
Keith Gonshorek [email protected]
Wed, Mar 9, 2011 at 5:41 PM
Thursday FTA Meeting
Dr. Mathias,
If you are free tomorrow afternoon, my senior design group would like to meet with you again at
1:30pm to briefly go over our completed Literature Review and to get a good start on solid ideas
for our project proposal before spring break. The Dean's office is closed by now, but I will stop
by tomorrow morning to reserve the conference room for us. Please let me know if you are not
able to make it to this meeting or if there are any other issues. Thank you.
-Keith Gonshorek
Team 64 - H2OPower
from
date
subject
James Mathias [email protected]
Wed, Mar 9, 2011 at 7:58 PM
Re: Thursday FTA Meeting
Keith,
I am able to attend for 30 minutes each thursday at 1:30PM, I had forgotten on Tuesday what
day it was for and was surprised the dean's office did not have it scheduled. It is on my schedule
now and I'll be able to attend.
James Mathias, Ph.D., P.E.
Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes Department
Associate Professor
Southern Illinois University Carbondale
ENGR E-024; Mailcode 6603
from
Keith Gonshorek [email protected]
44
date
subject
Wed, Mar 29, 2011 at 12:08 PM
H2OPOWER FTA Meeting
Dr. Mathias,
I just wanted to let you know that my group would like to meet with you again briefly this
Thursday, March 31st, at 1:30pm. We have more details about our project since we've received
feedback on our literature review and would like to hear your opinion on some things we're
going to have to decide on in the next couple of weeks before our project proposal is due. Please
let me know if the time on Thursday doesn't work for you and we can make other arrangements.
Thank you.
-Keith Gonshorek
Team 64 - H2OPOWER
from
date
subject
James Mathias [email protected]
Wed, Mar 29, 2011 at 1:15 PM
Re: H2OPOWER FTA Meeting
Keith,
I’ll be there.
James Mathias, Ph.D., P.E.
Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes Department
Associate Professor
Southern Illinois University Carbondale
ENGR E-024; Mailcode 6603
Carbondale, IL
618-453-7016
--------------------------------------------------April 1st, 2011------------------------------------------------from
date
subject
James Mathias [email protected]
Fri, Apr 1, 2011 at 2:16 PM
senior design
Keith,
I met a person at a conference that worked for a company (Applied Energy Recovery Systems, AERS)
which makes products to take heat from certain processes (such as air conditioning condensers) and
make hot water. I think they also make hot water heat pumps.
Apparently AERS has been purchased by A.O. Smith as seen on this website:
http://hvacrdistributionbusiness.com/news/smith-acquires-applied-energy-0609/
This might be a good place to gain knowledge about using heat to make hot water or to make the
condenser more efficient.
Feel free to forward all emails I send to you to all the team members. I have your email address handy,
that is why I send things to you.
45
James Mathias, Ph.D., P.E.
Associate Professor
Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes
Mailcode 6603
ENGR E-024, 1230 Lincoln Drive
Carbondale, IL 62901
618-453-7016
from
date
subject
Keith Gonshorek [email protected]
Fri, Apr 1, 2011 at 6:17 PM
Re: senior design
Dr. Mathias,
I forwarded the e-mail to the rest of the group. Thanks for the connection to this company. I'll
check out what they have to offer this project.
-Keith Gonshorek
--------------------------------------------------April 11th, 2011------------------------------------------------from
date
subject
Keith Gonshorek [email protected]
Mon, Apr 11, 2011 at 12:01 PM
Senior Design FTA Meeting 4/14/11
Dr. Mathias,
My senior design group, H2OPower, would like to meet with you again this Thursday, April
14th, from 1:30 - 2:00pm to go over our project subsystems with you. We also have some
questions to ask about alternate ideas for pumping the water out of the underground tank that
were brought to our attention by Dr. Weston and we could use your help. Please let me know if
this time doesn't work for you. Thank you.
-Keith Gonshorek
H2OPower
46
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