UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA Systems Thinking SAE 599 Jim Hines, Gerald Nadler Systems Thinking "We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them." Albert Einstein With rapid changes in science, technology and the internet, the amount of information made available doubles every two to five years.1 How does one keep current with an overload of data? How does one decipher, process, organize, and structure that data into learned knowledge that can be used to solve problems and make decisions? Engineers must deal with these concerns when developing solutions to technical challenges. Additionally, in an environment of increasing global competition and frequent development program failures, engineers are pressured to be more innovative in their solutions. Too often, however, engineers solve problems by utilizing overly narrow, comfortable, and quick reductionist approaches that inadequately deal with today's complex, dynamic and diverse problems. Reductionist problem solving methods focus on collecting data to improve system components and assume the overall system will improve as a result. However, that strategy often misses important interactions between system components and emergent, "big picture" systemlevel effects. As a result, reductionist approaches often perform inadequately when applied to problems of high complexity.SAE 599 Systems Thinking presents an alternative to reductionist methods. It will introduce students to fundamental concepts of learning, problem solving, decision-making and thinking patterns, with a focus on systems thinking. Students will learn to approach problems holistically, looks for patterns and balance interrelationships between system components to achieve creative and effective solutions. Emphasis is placed on systems thinking fundamentals: defining problem situations from a systems perspective, describing and modeling problem situations, and designing and improving upon system solutions. Upon completion of the course, students will have a framework of concepts, methods, and tools that have been successfully applied to develop complex systems across a variety of industries including aerospace, energy, transportation, health care, and security. 1. Abdullah, M.L. “Productivity Improvement in the Service Sector”, Asian Productivity Organization, Jan.2005 2. Murnane, R. and Levy. F. “Teaching the New Basic Skills Principles for Educating Children to Thrive in a Changing Economy”. New York The Free Pres. 1996 Course Learning Objectives After completing this course students will be able to: Provide an overview on cognitive psychology aspects of learning and thinking (concept formation problem solving, and decision making) Discuss how engineers “architect” and design solutions Understand the history and evolution of systems thinking Get a perspective on complexity and chaos and on solving those type of problems Establish a basic understanding of various systems thinking methodologies (hard, soft, meta) and processes. Examine systems architecting & engineering methods Identify various tools to facilitate forming concepts, solving problems and making decisions Evaluate when it is appropriate to apply analysis thinking methods, i.e. reductionist methods (ex. data collection, scientific method, etc.) as opposed to applying systems thinking methods (ex.Systems Engineering, Breakthrough Thinking/Smart Questions, etc.) Describe and model solutions that will enable system thinking (ex. mind maps, feedback & causal loops, behavior over time diagrams, etc.) Apply the Smart Questions phases to various problems. (socio - technical, supply chain, value chain / lean, etc.) Translate system thinking objectives into a problem statement that can be solved by traditional engineering disciplines (EE, ME, CE, CECS, ISE, Sciences etc.) Biographies: Instructors Jim Hines: Adjunct Associate Professor; Over 30 years of industrial experience working for Alcoa, Colt Industries, LTV Aerospace and the Boeing Company. Mr. Hines recently retired from the Boeing after ~20 years. Prior to retiring he was the systems engineering director of the Huntington Beach site and the Boeing enterprise systems engineering skill leader. Mr. Hines has Engineering Master Degrees in Ceramic Science, Metallurgy, Engineering Management, and a MBA. Dr. Gerry Nadler: Professor Emeritus of Industrial and Systems Engineering and IBM Chair Emeritus in Engineering Management. Academically, Dr. Nadler has been an instructor at Purdue, Professor and department chair at Washington University, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and USC and served in five invited (four abroad) visiting professorships. Professionally on three advisory boards in areas of planning and design methods and management, president of international Institute of Industrial Engineers, chair of four national conferences, over 800 lectures and keynote addresses, over 25 international and national awards, including election to the National Academy of Engineering, author of 14 books and over 225 articles. Master’s and Doctoral degrees were awarded from Purdue University Guest Lecturers Dr. Heidi Davidz: Achieving Competitive Excellence (ACE) Manager at Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne at NASA Stennis Space Center. ACE is the operating system used to drive continuous improvement and business results. She has previously worked for Aerospace Corporation and GE Aircraft engines. Her doctoral degree was awarded in the Engineering Systems Division (ESD) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) with sponsorship from the Lean Aerospace Initiative (LAI) Michael Hogan: Boeing Engineer. Works to help engineering teams at the Boeing Company continuously improve their product development processes. His experience has crossed all phases of the Systems Engineering lifecycle from concept development through customer validation. Previously Mr. Hogan worked on the Army’s Future Combat System Program. Michael is also the acting Western Region Vice President for the Institute of Industrial Engineers. He holds Master and Bachelor degrees in Industrial & Systems Engineering from the University of Southern California. Dr. Richard John: Associate Professor of Psychology, Chair of the University Park Institutional Review Board (UPIRB) and affiliated with CREATE- Center for Risk and Economic Analysis of Terrorism Events, has present numerous conference papers and written several book chapters and journal articles in field of quantitative psychology. Doctoral degree was awarded from University of Southern California. Paul Newton: Senior Operational Concept Analyst for Boeing's Research & Technology organization where he is part of an internal consulting group that applies the feedback thinking of system dynamics, via computer simulation, to business strategy across the Boeing enterprise. He holds an M.S. in structural engineering from N.C. State University, and is ABD for a M.Phil in system dynamics from the University of Bergen in Norway. Theodore K. Mayeshiba: Lecturer in the USC Daniel J. Epstein School of Industrial and Systems Engineering and a Principal of Action Consulting & Training, a nationwide consulting firm based in Irvine, CA. Ted has taught and implemented Lean events for companies as diverse as Gillette, Tennaco, Disney, Johnson Controls and Boeing. Mr. Mayeshiba has his MBA from the University of Southern California. Grading: Midterm Class Project Exercises 20% 40% 40% Text Books: 1. Adams, J.L., Conceptual Blockbusting: A Guide to Better Ideas, Third Edition, Basic Books; 1990 (Book) 2. Kim, D. H., Systems Thinking Tools: A User’s Reference Guide, Pegasus Communications, Inc. 2000 (Book) 3. Nadler. G. and Chandon, Smart Questions: Learn to Ask the Right Questions for Powerful Results, John Wiley and Sons, 2004 (Book) 4. Course reader will also be assembled for this course. This will expose students to a variety of resource materials including course slides Website: USC URL www.usc.edu/dept/engineering/Distance _Learning Blackboard https://learn.usc.edu Administrative: DEN Exams and Proctoring [email protected], (213) 821-3136 fax: (213) 821-0851 Technical Support [email protected] Online Services, Webcast Problems, Software Questions or General Technical Departmental, Program and Student Advice: (213) 821-1321 Mary Ordaz, ISE Student Services Advisor, 213-740-4886 Academic Integrity Statement - "The School of Engineering adheres to the University's policies and procedures governing academic integrity as described in USC Campus. Students are expected to be aware of and to observe the academic integrity standards described in USC Campus, and to expect those standards to be enforced in this course. Students with Disabilities: "Any Student requesting academic accommodations based on a disability is required to register with Disability Services and Programs (DSP) each semester. A letter of verification for approved accommodations can be obtained from DSP. Please be sure the letter is delivered to me (or to TA) as early in the semester as possible. DSP is located in STU 301 and is open 8:30 a.m. - 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday. The phone number for DSP is (213)740-0776." Course Structure: Week Topic Assignment Week Due 1 Thinking Concepts and Systems Thinking Terminology 2 What and Why Systems Thinking: A View from the Past to Present Exercise 1 3 3 Dealing with Complexity and Chaos Exercise 2 4 4 Processes & Methods I: Types of Systems Thinking Exercise 3 5 5 Processes & Methods II: Systems Architecting & Engineering Exercise 4 6 6 Processes & Methods III: System Dynamics Exercise 5 7 7 Systems Thinking Tools Exercise 6 8 8 Midterm & Project Selection 9 Smart Questions Case Study I: Describing and Understanding the Problem Project Part I: 10 Problem Statement 10 Smart Questions Case Study II: Future Solution Project Part II: Future Solution 11 11 Smart Questions Case Study III: Living Solution for Today and Tomorrow Project Part III: Living Solution 12 12 Systems Implementation Project Part IV: Implementation 14 13 Research Needs Regarding Future Systems Thinking and Next Steps 14 Class Project: Game Day Project Part IV: Presentation 15 15 Class Project: Presentations Texts & Course Reader: A course reader will be assembled for this course. The course reader will expose students to a variety of resource publications with different perspectives. SYSTEMS ARCHITECTING AND ENGINEERING PROGRAM RESEARCH PAPER GUIDELINES “SOURCES: Students must properly reference all sources. SAE Program uses the turnitin.com service to look for matches with existing books, magazine and newspaper articles, journals, prior student papers, and all Internet sources. If a student directly quotes text from a source, they must properly designate quoted material “in quotation marks” or in italics, and give a citation for each quotation via a footnote or a numbered reference. Please do not use in-text (author-date) notation for citations. The amount of quoted text relative to the total text in your paper should be kept to a minimum-- if excessive; this will detract from the paper’s grade. WARNING: Failure to properly designate copy-and-pasted text will be considered as a violation of academic integrity (see University Policy Statements at the beginning of this syllabus). This includes quotations from your prior papers (e.g. from SAE 549 or other classes)! Remember students can build on their own work from other classes, and from other authors’ works, as long as they properly cite those references. The student must not directly copy text from those sources (unless properly marked and cited as a quotation). Instead, you must add value by restating such work in your own words plus your own enhancements, such that the combination has enhanced relevance to this class. The student can directly copy graphics, tables, or figures if they give a citation for each copied item via a footnote or a numbered reference. Although there is no limitation on the amount of copied items, the student’s own artwork-- however crude yet clearly legible and illustrative-- is always acceptable. LIMITS: The SAE Program cannot accept a request to limit access to abstracts or research papers. Although the plan is not to disseminate student’s work without their permission, The SAE Program cannot guarantee that other people (including non-US citizens) will not view or handle your submitted materials. Thus student must not use classified, proprietary or company limited-distribution materials in their coursework. If a student’s employer requires review and approval for their submitted materials (e.g. Public Affairs Office or Export Compliance Review) then the student must obtain such approval within the deadlines listed in this syllabus. As the approval practices in many companies may be time consuming, the best practice is not to use company material at all.” Reference: Ken Cureton Bibliography 1. Russell L. Ackoff (1999) Ackoff's Best NY: Wiley 2. Virginia Anderson and Lauren Johnson (1997) Systems Thinking Basics: From Concepts to Causal Loops (Pegasus) 3. Robert Axelrod and Michael D. Cohen ( ) Harnessing Complexity 4. Bela H. Banathy (1996) Designing Social Systems in a Changing World NY: Plenum 5. Bela H. Banathy (2000) The Guided Evolution of Society NY: Plenum/Kluwer Academic 6. Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1968) General System theory: Foundations, Development, Applications, George Braziller New York 7. Barron, J. 2008, Thinking and deciding, 4th ed. Cambridge Univ Press 8. Peter Checkland (1981) Systems Thinking, Systems Practice. (Wiley) 9. Peter Checkland Jim Scholes (1990) Soft Systems Methodology in Action. (Wiley) ISBN 0-471-92768-6 10. Peter Checkland Jim Sue Holwell (1998) Information, Systems and Information Systems. (Wiley) ISBN 0-471-95820-4 11. Joseph O'Connor, Ian McDermott (1997) The Art of Systems Thinking: Revolutionary Techniques to Transform Your Business and Your Life HarperCollins. 12. H.L. Davidz, Enabling Systems Thinking To Accelerate The Development Of Senior Systems Engineers, Doctor Of Philosophy In Engineering Systemsat The Massachusetts Institute Of Technology, February 2006 13. Flood. R.L., Carson, E.R., Dealing with Complexity: An Introduction to the Theory and Application of Systems Science, Plenum Press, N.Y., 1990 14. John Gall (1978) Systemantics Pocket Books 15. Jamshid Gharajedaghi Systems (2005) Thinking, Second Edition: Managing Chaos and Complexity: A Platform for Designing Business Architecture (ButterworthHeinemann) 16. Charles L. Hutchins (1996) Systemic Thinking: Solving Complex Problems CO:PDS ISBN 1-888017-51-1 17. Hitchins, D.K., Advanced Systems Thinking, Engineering, Management, Artech House, Boston, 2003 18. Michael C. Jackson ( ) Systems Thinking; Creative Holism for Managers 19. Bradford Keeney (1983) Aesthetics of Change Guilford Press 20. Keeney, R. 1992, Value focused thinking. Harvard Univ. Press 21. Daniel H. Kim Introduction to Systems Thinking (Pegasus Communications Inc.) 22. Daniel H. Kim (1995) "Systems Thinking Tools: A User's Reference Guide" Part of the Toolbox Reprint Series. (Pegasus Communications Inc.) 23. Draper Kauffman ( ) System One and System Two 24. M. Davidson, Uncommon sense: The life and thought of Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Father of General Systems Theory (J. P. Tarcher, Inc) 25. Gerald Nadler, Shozo Hibino (1999) Creative Solution Finding: The Triumph of Breakthrough Thinking over Conventional Problem Solving Prima Publishing 26. Gerald Nadler, William Chandon ((2004) Smart Questions: Learn to Ask The Right Questions For Powerful Results John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 27. Tom Ritchey (2002) General Morphological Analysis: A General Method for NonQuantified Modelling 28. Mitchell Resnick ( ) Turtles, Termites and Traffic Jams 29. Peter M. Senge (1990) The Fifth Discipline - The Art & Practice of The Learning Organization (Currency Doubleday). 30. Senge, Kleiner, Roberts, Ross and Smith The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook 31. Sherwood, D., Seeing the Forest for the Trees: A Manager’s Guide to Applying Systems Thinking, Nicholas Brealey Publishing, London, 2002 32. Lars Skyttner (2006) General Systems Theory: Problems, Perspective, Practice (World Scientific Publishing Company) ISBN 9-812-56467-5 33. Gerald M. Weinberg (1975) An Introduction to General Systems Thinking (1975 ed., Wiley-Interscience) (2001 ed. Dorset House). 34. Brian Wilson (Systems) (1984) Systems: Concepts, Methodologies and Applications. (Wiley) ISBN 0-471-92716-3 35. Brian Wilson (Systems) (2001) Soft Systems Methodology: Conceptual Model Building and its Contribution. (Wiley) ISBN 0-471-89489-3 36. Midgley, G., Systems Thinking, Volume IV, Critical Systems Thinking and Systemic Perspectives on Ethics, Power and Pluralism, Sage Publications, 2003 37. Skyttner, L., General Systems Theory: Ideas & Applications, Chapter 11: The Future of Systems Theory, World Scientific, N.J., 2001 38. Adams, James L., Conceptual Blockbusting: A Guide to Better Ideas, Third Edition, Addison-Wesley, 1990 39. Cabrera, D., ”Patterns of Thinking: Essential Skills for the 21st Century,” 21st CENTURYTHINKER series, Nov. 15,2007 40. English, L., Lesh, R., and Fennewald, T., “Future Directions and Perspectives for Problem Solving Research and Curriculum Development, ICME, 2008 41. Paul, R., Persson, A., Boyadjain, B., Create Fun @ Work: Improve your productivity, quality of life, and the morale of those around you, Knowledge Capture & Transfer, 1999.