Genetic Engineering, Human Genome, Karyotyping & Mutations Exam Review Use your notes in order to answer and review Genectic Review & Technology Concepts 1. What is the difference between genotype and phenotype? 2. How is this related to gene expression? 3. Give an example of gene expression including the trigger that turns the gene on. 4. What is selective breeding and how is it done? 5. What are some benefits and drawbacks to selective breeding? 6. How can a lack of genetic variety be detrimental in nature? 7. Describe an example of a hybrid and how the new hybrid DNA may be more successful that it’s inbred parent DNA. 8. What is the process of DNA fingerprinting based on? (why does it work?) 9. What is Chromosome painting? What are it’s uses? 10. Analyze the image DNA fingerprint below left. Which suspect matches the crime scene DNA? 11. Analyze the DNA comparison of the three people above right. What can you conclude about the relationships between these three people? 12. What is a restriction enzyme? Why is it significant that there are many different types that specifically target? Karyotypes: 1. How many chromosomes are shown in a normal human karyotype? 2. What type of abnormalities can be observed in a karyotype? (Examples) 3. What is the genotype for a sex chromosome in a male? ________ Female? __________ 4. In a pedigree what does a circle represent? 5. What does shading represent in a pedigree? 6. Name types of recessive disorders 7. Name types of dominant disorders 8. Most sex-linked genes are found in the _______________________________________________. 9. What are some examples of sex-linked traits? 10. What is nondisjunction? 11. What type of chromosomes can nondisjunction occur on? 12. What type of chromosomal error can be seen on a karyotype of someone who has Down syndrome? (Be specific) 13. Blast from the past.....If a female fruit fly heterozygous for red eyes (XRXr) crossed with a white-eyed male (XrY), describe what their offspring would be. Mutations: 1. What is the difference between a chromosomal disorder and a genetic mutation? 2. Is it possible for some genetic mutations to be corrected using genetic engineering technology? (Is there precident for this? Examples) 3. Can chromosomal disorders be corrected once they have occured? Why/Why not? 4. In order for offspring to recieve a mutation the mutation must be in what cell? 5. How are mutations important to provided variation in nature? 6. Are mutations random? What are some causes of mutations? 7. What precentage of your DNA actively codes for proteins? __________Why is this important when concidering how often significant mutations (good or bad) appear in nature? 8. Mutations are more often (positive, negative, nutral) in nature. 4. The process of making changes in the DNA code of a living organism is called ____________________________. There are 4 types, please name and draw a picture of each. Under each picute, describe what has happened. Which type of mutation is the most significant and why?