Directed Reading 2-3 / 2-4 Directions: Answer the following questions on YOUR OWN PAPER and in COMPLETE SENTENCES! These questions will be used to study for your test. There will not be a formal review guide! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. Define organic. Define macromolecule. What is the difference between a monomer and a polymer? Name the 4 classes of macromolecules. Glycogen is a_________________while Amylose and Amylopectin are _______________. What is the difference between a monosaccaride and a polysaccharide? Name 2 structural polysaccharides. What is the function of a carbohydrate? What is the monomer of a polysaccharide? How do biotechnologists use glucose? Draw Figure 2.23 (pg.54). Circle the area that is structurally different between deoxyribose and ribose. Lipids contain what two elements? Name and define the 3 groups of lipids. What is the difference between hydrophobic and hydrophilic? Draw the chemical structure of a phospholipid (Figure 2.25 on pg.55). Label the following: a. Phosphate group (add the negative charge) b. 2 fatty acid chains c. Glycerol base d. The hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas If you were to dry a cell (remove the water), how much of the remaining mass would be proteins? In a biotech firm, what percentage of employees is dedicated to protein research? Keratin is a protein found in your nails but also in what? What is the monomer of a protein? What is the difference between a polypeptide and a protein? The function of a protein comes from it’s what? What are the 3 parts of an amino acid? Which part of the amino acid determines it’s function and how it interacts with other amino acids? Name the two types of nucleic acids. What is the monomer of a nucleic acid? What are the 3 parts of this monomer? Which of the following are monosaccharides: cellulose, sucrose, glucose, lactose, fructose, or amylopectin? Which of the following molecules are proteins that function as hormones: estrogen, insulin, human growth hormone, testosterone or cholesterol? What distinguishes one amino acid from another? 30. How are the terms nucleotide, nitrogenous base, and nucleic acid related to each other? Directed Reading 2-4 Directions: Answer the following questions on YOUR OWN PAPER and in COMPLETE SENTENCES! These questions will be used to study for your test. There will not be a formal review guide! 1. What is the term used to describe DNA that has been produced by cutting and pasting together pieces of DNA from two different organisms? 2. What kinds of molecules were used to cut / paste these DNA segments? What kind of macromolecule is this? 3. What is a vector? (use glossary) 4. What organism was first used to be genetically engineered? 5. Explain what Cohen/Boyer/and Berg did in their experiment. 6. What was the first commercial genetically engineered product? What was its application? When was it approved? 7. Explain how what was done to get this first genetically modified product. 8. Why would scientists want to make recombinant insulin? 9. Explain why South San Francisco, California calls itself “The Birthplace of Biotechnology”? 10. Name the biotechnology company found right here in Thousand Oaks, CA. 11. What is their main drug and what is it used for? Extra: 1. Name the type of bond for each macromolecule: Carbohydrate: ______________ Protein:______________ Nucleic acid: backbone of DNA __________ ; between the nitrogenous bases_______________ Lipid:_______________________ 2. A) Name the structure to the right. B )Label the amino and carboxyl groups. C )Name the bond formed between 2 of these monomers of a protein. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Be able to recognize a lipid (fat and phospholipid) and each part + kind of bond Be able to recognize a sugar (simple or complex) + examples of each and kind of bond Be able to recognize the nitrogenous bases and kinds of bonds Be able to recognize amino acids + kind of bond Know the difference between dehydration synthesis (condensation) and hydrolysis.