Phylogenetics Worksheet: Name: ____________________ 1. Did the construction of the phylogenetic tree based solely on the 14 living Caminalcules change the way you would have grouped the Caminalcules species in your taxonomic classification (chart) if you had it to do over? What does this suggest about classification based strictly on similarity versus evolutionary relationship? 2. Did the phylogeny of the 14 living Caminalcules you made in week 1 based on their morphological similarity differ from their relationships in the phylogenetic tree with all 71 Caminalcules, both living and fossil? Which do you have more confidence in? What do fossils add to our understanding of Caminalcules evolution in terms of rates and direction of evolutionary change? 3. Identify the most recent common ancestor of any two species. (answer should read like “species 5 is the most recent ancestor of species 2 and species 4”) 4. You will notice that some lineages branched many times in a relatively short time period and are represented by many living species. Provide an example from your phylogenic tree of this rapid diversification. 5. Some lineages change very little over time. A good example of this would be “living fossils” like sharks, the horseshoe crab, or cockroaches whose fossils. Provide an example from your phylogenic tree of evolutionary stasis. Discuss what types of ecological conditions might result in this sort of long-term evolutionary stasis. 6. Some Caminalcules went extinct without leaving descendents. In the real world, what characteristic of a species life history (not of their environment) might increase the probability of that species going extinct? 7. Find two examples of convergent evolution among the Caminalcules. This means finding cases where two or more species have a similar characteristic that evolved independently. The wings of bats, birds and bees are an example of convergence since the three groups did not inherit the characteristic from their common ancestor. Write your answers in complete sentences (e.g. “Species x and y both have ____ but their most recent common ancestor, z, did not”). 8. Describe two examples of vestigial structures that you can find among the Caminalcules. These are structures that have become reduced over time to the point that they are virtually useless. Ear muscles and the tail bones are examples of vestigial structures in humans. Explain how vestigial structures provide clues about a species’ evolutionary past. Illustrate your argument with vestigial structures found in humans or other real species.